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Table 2 Pre-post MR analysis of medication number, MRCI, DBI and MDE

From: Improving individualized prescription in patients with multimorbidity through medication review

Pharmacological data Previous MR Post-MR Difference P
Number of medications, mean [sd]
All patients 8.13 (3.94) 6.67 (3.72) -1,45 (1,97)  < 0.001
Sex Men 8.43 (3.57) 6.98 (3.68) -1,45 (1,94)  < 0.001
Women 7.95 (4.10) 6.50 (3.74) -1,45 (1,99)  < 0.001
Frailty degree No frailty: 0–0.19 7.19 (4.50) 6.65 (3.85) -0,54 (2,34)  > 0.05
Mild frailty: 0.20–0.35 7.67 (3.48) 6.79 (3.27) -0,88 (1,82)  < 0.001
Moderate frailty: 0.36–0.50 8.18 (4.16) 6.79 (4.19) -1,40 (1,61)  < 0.001
Severe frailty: > 0.50 9.18 (3.59) 6.05 (2.90) -3,13 (2,12)  < 0.001
Medication regimen complexity index, mean [sd]
Whole sample 31.0 (16.2) 25.1 (15.1) -5.9 (8.2)  < 0.001
Sex Men 31.3 (14.4) 25.0 (14.3) -6.3 (7.6)  < 0.001
Women 30.9 (17.1) 25.2 (15.4) -5.7 (8.5)  < 0.001
Frailty degree No frailty: 0–0.19 27.2 (18.6) 25.6 (15.4) -1.6 (10.5)  > 0.05
Mild frailty: 0.20–0.35 28.7 (14.1) 24.8 (13.1) -3.9 (7.7) 0.002
Moderate frailty: 0.36–0.50 31.6 (17.4) 25.9 (17.1) -5.7 (6.6)  < 0.001
Severe frailty: > 0.50 35.5 (14.5) 23.1 (11.9) -12.4 (9.1)  < 0.001
Drug burden index, mean [sd]
Whole sample 1.19 (0.82) 1.09 (0.82) -0.10 (0.35)  < 0.001
Sex Men 1.14 (0.90) 1.00 (0.86) -0.14 (0.38)  < 0.001
Women 1.22 (0.78) 1.13 (0.80) -0.09 (0.34)  < 0.001
Frailty degree No frailty: 0–0.19 0.47 (0.53) 0.45 (0.44) -0.02 (0.28) 0.794
Mild frailty: 0.20–0.35 0.84 (0.65) 0.78 (0.65) -0.06 (0.32) 0.083
Moderate frailty: 0.36–0.50 1.40 (0.84) 1.27 (0.89) -0.13 (0.38)  < 0.001
Severe frailty: > 0.50 1.58 (0.73) 1.43 (0.72) -0.15 (0.33) 0.002
Monthly drug expenditure, median (Q1;Q3)
All patients 57.61 (27.01;116.54) 45.72 (20.32;99.26) -4.81 (-16.5;0)  < 0.001
Sex Men 78.69 (33.71;135.32) 66.19 (25.08;121.42) -5.53 (-19.1;0)  < 0.001
Women 50.59 (23.06;107.00) 41.55 (18.36;93.37) -4.72 (-13.9;0)  < 0.001
Frailty degree No frailty: 0–0.19 32.48 (15.89;84.40) 49.29 (11.32;85.87) -0.59 (-4.5;8.8) 0.935
Mild frailty: 0.20–0.35 50.07 (21.63;100.11) 43.45 (19.90;99.26) -2.14 (-9.98;0) 0.040
Moderate frailty: 0.36–0.50 68.77 (27.90;121.13) 48.17 (20.25;107.97) -5.97 (-16.9;0)  < 0.001
Severe frailty: > 0.50 63.21 (38.25;137.53) 47.86 (25.93;93.06) -11.3(-22.33;3.69)  < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: Sd Standard deviation, MR Medication review