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Table 2 Associations between frailty status and inflammatory/coagulation/endothelial/cardiac biomarkers, and subclinical CVD in men without clinically-apparent CVD

From: Associations between inflammation, coagulation, cardiac strain and injury, and subclinical vascular disease with frailty in older men: a cross-sectional study

  Model 1† Model 2 (n = 967)
Odds ratio for prefrailty vs robustness (95% CI) Odds ratio per standard deviation increase (95% confidence interval) p Odds ratio for frailty vs robustness (95% CI) Odds ratio per standard deviation increase (95% confidence interval) p Odds ratio for prefrailty vs robustness (95% CI) Odds ratio per standard deviation increase (95% confidence interval) p Odds ratio for frailty vs robustness (95% CI) Odds ratio per standard deviation increase (95% confidence interval) p
Inflammatory biomarkers
 log CRP 1.22 (1.07–1.39) 1.26 (1.08–1.46) 0.003 1.37 (1.14–1.66) 1.47 (1.18–1.82) 0.001 1.05 (0.91–1.22) 1.06 (0.89–1.27) 0.49 1.13 (0.90–1.42) 1.15 (0.88–1.51) 0.30
 log IL-6 1.68 (1.35–2.09) 1.46 (1.24–1.70) < 0.0001 2.26 (1.66–3.09) 1.81 (1.46–2.25) < 0.0001 1.52 (1.18–1.95) 1.35 (1.13–1.63) 0.001 2.02 (1.38–2.95) 1.67 (1.26–2.20) 0.0003
Coagulation biomarkers
 log tPA 1.36 (0.96–1.91) 1.14 (0.98–1.33) 0.08 2.03 (1.22–3.36) 1.36 (1.09–1.70) 0.006 1.32 (0.91–1.91) 1.13 (0.96–1.33) 0.15 1.68 (0.94–3.02) 1.26 (0.97–1.62) 0.08
 log D-dimer 1.24 (0.96–1.60) 1.14 (0.98–1.33) 0.09 1.23 (0.85–1.78) 1.13 (0.91–1.42) 0.27
Endothelial biomarkers
 log vWF 1.44 (1.05–1.96) 1.19 (1.03–1.37) 0.02 1.73 (1.09–2.75) 1.33 (1.07–1.64) 0.02 1.27 (0.91–1.77) 1.12 (0.96–1.31) 0.15 1.40 (0.83–2.38) 1.18 (0.91–1.51) 0.21
Cardiac biomarkers
 log hs-cTnT 1.33 (1.05–1.68) 1.22 (1.04–1.43) 0.02 2.25 (1.54–3.29) 1.76 (1.35–2.29) < 0.0001 1.13 (0.90–1.42) 1.13 (0.95–1.35) 0.18 1.95 (1.24–3.05) 1.59 (1.16–2.18) 0.004
 log NT-proBNP 1.13 (1.01–1.27) 1.17 (1.01–1.36) 0.03 1.26 (1.06–1.15) 1.36 (1.08–1.71) 0.008 1.08 (0.95–1.22) 1.10 (0.93–1.30) 0.27 1.14 (0.94–1.40) 1.19 (0.92–1.54) 0.19
Imaging markers
 CIMT 1.12 (0.44–2.88) 1.02 (0.88–1.18) 0.82 3.10 (0.78–12.34) 1.19 (0.96–1.48) 0.11
 cfPWV 1.16 (1.05–1.27) 1.27 (1.09–1.49) 0.003 1.11 (0.96–1.29) 1.19 (0.93–1.53) 0.16 1.12 (1.02–1.24) 1.21 (1.03–1.44) 0.02 1.04 (0.88–1.23) 1.07 (0.81–1.40) 0.64
 DC 0.96 (0.92–0.99) 0.83 (0.71–0.96) 0.01 0.92 (0.86–0.98) 0.70 (0.54–0.90) 0.006 0.98 (0.94–1.02) 0.90 (0.76–1.07) 0.24 0.92 (0.86–0.99) 0.71 (0.53–0.95) 0.02
 ABPI < 0.9 (vs ABPI 0.9–1.4) 1.33 (0.93–1.90) 0.12 1.70 (1.00–2.89) 0.05
 ABPI > 1.4 (vs ABPI 0.9–1.4) 0.61 (0.24–1.55) 0.30 0.71 (0.14–3.65) 0.68
  1. Model 1: Adjusted for age, eGFR, smoking status, polypharmacy, cognitive impairment, number of non-cardiovascular comorbidities, social class, BMI class, and systolic blood pressure. Model 2: additionally mutually-adjusted for biomarkers/imaging markers with p < 0.05 in Model 1
  2. BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, CRP C-reactive protein, IL-6 interleukin-6, tPA tissue plasminogen activator, vWF von Willebrand factor, hs-cTnT high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, NT-proBNP N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide, CIMT carotid intima media thickness, cfPWV carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, DC carotid distensibility coefficient, ABPI ankle brachial pressure index
  3. †For Model 1, n varies by variable used: log CRP n = 1075, log IL-6 n = 1085, log tPA n = 1074, log D-dimer n = 1074, log vWF n = 1074, log hs-cTnT n = 1075, log NT-proBNP n = 1075, CIMT n = 1081, cfPWV n = 1022, DC n = 1076, ABPI n = 1032