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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants

From: Associations between albumin, globulin, albumin to globulin ratio and muscle mass in adults: results from the national health and nutrition examination survey 2011–2014

Characteristics Man P value Woman P value
NMM (n = 1941) LMM (n = 139) NMM (n = 1875) LMM (n = 155)
Age (years) 38.9 (0.5) 44.3 (1.3)  < 0.001 39.7 (0.6) 45.3 (1.4)  < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 27.9 (0.2) 35.8 (1.0)  < 0.001 28.2 (0.2) 34.2 (0.8)  < 0.001
White blood cell count (1000 cells/uL) 7.0 (0.1) 8.2 (0.3) 0.001 7.3 (0.1) 7.7 (0.2) 0.092
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 15.2 (0.0) 15.0 (0.2) 0.271 13.3 (0.1) 13.3 (0.1) 0.933
Total calcium (mg/dL) 9.5 (0.0) 9.3 (0.1) 0.049 9.4 (0.0) 9.3 (0.0) 0.488
Phosphorus (mg/dL) 3.7 (0.0) 3.6 (0.0) 0.058 3.8 (0.0) 3.8 (0.0) 0.178
Uric acid (mg/dL) 6.0 (0.0) 6.2 (0.2) 0.204 4.6 (0.0) 4.7 (0.1) 0.394
Total Cholesterol (mg/dL) 192.3 (1.6) 194.0 (3.6) 0.698 193.9 (1.5) 200.3 (3.6) 0.130
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 163.9 (4.0) 214.5 (14.7) 0.003 128.3 (3.3) 154.0 (9.8) 0.018
Albumin (g/dL) 4.5 (0.0) 4.3 (0.0) 0.001 4.2 (0.0) 4.2 (0.0) 0.023
Globulin (g/dL) 2.7 (0.0) 2.8 (0.1) 0.007 2.8 (0.0) 3.0 (0.0) 0.001
AGR 1.7 (0.0) 1.6 (0.0)  < 0.001 1.5 (0.0) 1.4 (0.0)  < 0.001
25(OH)D (nmol/L) 64.6 (1.2) 55.2 (2.3)  < 0.001 69.3 (1.7) 64.7 (3.3) 0.151
ASM (kg) 27.5 (0.1) 26.3 (0.7) 0.093 18.6 (0.2) 16.2 (0.4)  < 0.001
ASMI 1.0 (0.0) 0.7 (0.0)  < 0.001 0.7 (0.0) 0.5 (0.0)  < 0.001
Race (%)     < 0.001     < 0.001
Hispanic 15.8 29.4   14.1 43.1  
Non-Hispanic White 64.6 60.1   65.3 44.6  
Non-Hispanic Black 11.1 2.9   12.3 5.9  
other 8.5 7.6   8.3 6.4  
Hypertension (%)    0.462    0.001
No 76.8 73.5   78.0 63.3  
Yes 23.2 26.5   22.0 36.7  
Diabetes (%)    0.019     < 0.001
No 95.1 88.5   94.9 84.3  
Yes 4.9 11.5   5.1 15.7  
  1. Abbreviations: NMM Normal muscle mass, LMM Low muscle mass, ASM Appendicular skeletal muscle mass, ASMI Appendicular skeletal muscle index, BMI Body mass index, AGR Albumin to globulin ratio
  2. The data were demonstrated as weighted mean (se) for continuous variables, and weighted percentage for categorical variables