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Table 3 Dietary intake of nutrients at baseline and after intervention among homecare clients with protein-energy malnutrition or risk of it in the intervention and control group

From: Effect of individually tailored nutritional counselling on protein and energy intake among older people receiving home care at risk of or having malnutrition: a non-randomised intervention study

  Intervention group (n = 112) Control group (n = 87) Difference between groups Δ6th month
  Baseline, mean (SD) Change ≥6 mo, mean (SD) Baseline, mean (SD) Change ≥6 mo, mean (SD) Mean 95% CI P value
Energy (kcal/d) 1490.3 (415.7) 15.0 (379.9) 1278.9.0 (377.4) 92.8 (441.8) −77.8 −33.7 to 182.0 0.177
Energy (kcal/kgBW) 22.5 (7.3) 0.2 (5.8) 17.7 (5,6) 1.4 (6.3) −1.2 −3.0 to 0.5 0.158
Carbohydrates (kcal/d) 723.8 (224.1) −5.6 (207.0) 644.8 (198.5) 48.7 (249.1) −54.3 −118.1 to 9.4 0.094
Fat (kcal/d) 468.6 (167.1) −8.6 (187.1)) 379.8 (152.8) 24.5 (173.0) −33.1 −84.1 to 17.9 0.202
Protein (kcal/d) 239.2 (72.4) 24.5 (76.3) 210.4 (67.4) 13.2 (75.8) 11.3 −10.1 to 32.7 0.289
Carbohydrates E% 49.3 (6.5) −0.8 (8.1) 50.6 (7.5) −0.1 (9.0) −0.7 −3.0 to 1.7 0.577
Fat E% 31.3 (5.7) −0.8 (7.4) 29.4 (6.2) 0.1 (8.4) −0.9 −3.2 to 1.2 0.383
Protein E% 16.1 (2.8) 1.4 (3.7) 16.5 (3.1) −0.3 (3.9) 1.7 0.6 to 2.7 0.002
Protein (g/kgBW) 0.9 (0.3) 0.09 (0.3) 0.7 (0.2) 0.05 (0.3) 0.04 0.05 to 0.2 0.003
Fibre (g) 20.7 (8.7) 0.8 (8.4) 18.3 (6.9) −0.3 (6.3) 1.1 0.2 to 4.3 0.034
Vitamins/d
 A (μg) 651.1 (1103.6) −45.7 (1133.9) 408.7 (385.2) 134.0 (792.0) 179.9 − 129.6 to 203.8 0.661
 D (μg) 8.5 (4.4) 2.1 (8.0) 7.6 (4.0) 0.7 (4.5) 1.4 0.7 to 4.4 0.007
 E (mg) 7.8 (3.5) 0.6 (3.6) 6.0 (2.7) 0.5 (2.5) 0.1 0.4 to 2.2 0.004
 Thiamine (mg) 1.3 (0.6) 0.02 (0.6) 1.2 (0.5) −0.03 (0.6) 0.05 0.02 to 0.3 0.024
 Riboflavin (mg) 1.8 (0.6) 0.1 (0.6) 1.6 (0.6) 0.2 (0.7) −0.1 −0.06 to 0.3 0.192
 B12 (μg) 3.8 (4.1) 0.7 (5.7) 3.1 (1.9) 0.5 (3.1) 0.2 0.02 to 2.6 0.023
 Folate (μg) 210.9 (114.0) 8.7 (107.0) 182.4 (68.4) 8.4 (95.6) 0.3 1.5 to 46.5 0.036
Minerals/d (mg)
 Calcium 979.3 (344.0) 100.0 (380.1) 837.6 (365.7) 113.3 (414.8) −13.3 −34.4 to 188.3 0.174
 Iron 10.0 (3.9) 0.4 (4.0) 8.8 (2.9) −0.1 (3.0) 0.5 0.6 to 2.4 0.002
 Zinc 10.0 (3.1) 0.5 (2.8) 8.9 (2.9) −0.2 (3.0) 0.7 0.6 to 2.2 0.001
  1. SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval, kcal/d kilocalorie per day, g/kgBW gram per kilogram body weight, g gram, μg microgram, mg milligram, E% energy per cent, vitamins/d vitamins per day.