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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of participants with protein-energy malnutrition or risk of it in the intervention and control group

From: Effect of individually tailored nutritional counselling on protein and energy intake among older people receiving home care at risk of or having malnutrition: a non-randomised intervention study

  Intervention group (n = 112) Control group (n = 87) P-value
Demographic
 Female, % (n) 73.2 (82) 71.3 (62) 0.760
 Age, mean (SD) 84.3 (5.1) 84.3 (5.3) 0.983
 Education in years, mean (SD) 9.0 (3.9) 6.8 (1.8) < 0.001
 Living alone, % (n) 65.5 (72) 66.3 (57) 0.904
Clinical
 MNA, mean (SD) (range) 21.2 (2.1) (12.5–27.5) 21.6 (2.3) (12.5–27) 0.274
 ≥24% (n) 87.5 (98) 87.4 (76) 0,977
 ≤23.5% (n) 12.5 (14) 12.6 (11)  
 BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) (range) 26.6 (5.5) (15.6–46.1) 28.4 (6.4) (17.7–51.8) 0.043
 < 24% (n) 27.6 (31) 22.9 (20) 0.053
 24–29% (n) 47.3 (53) 40.2 (35)  
 > 29%(n) 35.0 (28) 36.8 (32)  
 Plasma albumin (g/L), mean (SD) (range) 35.3 (3.0) (27.0–40.0) 36.8 (3.8) (28.0–45.0) 0.028
 Number of drugs ≥10, % (n) 53.2 (59) 60.9 (53) 0.274
Oral health
 Dry mouth, % (n) 57.7 (64) 56.3 (49) 0.851
 Chewing problems, % (n) 18.8 (19) 19.8 (17) 0.896
Functional clinical
 FCI, mean (SD) 2.5 (1.7) 3.6 (2.0) < 0.001
 cardiovascular diseases, % (n) 61.6 (69) 65.5 (57) 0.570
 diabetes, % (n) 29.5 (33) 34.5 (30) 0.450
 MMSE, mean (SD) 23.1 (5.3) 22.6 (5.1) 0.554
 < 24, % (n) 40.7 (44) 47.6 (40) 0.341
 < 18, % (n) 13.9 (15) 14.3 (12) 0.937
 GDS-15, ≥5, % (n) 44 (48) 52.9 (46) 0.219
Functional ability
 ADL, mean (SD) 83.1 (18.2) 84.9 (20.0) 0.512
 < 60, % (n) 11.0 (12) 8.1 (7) 0.502
 IADL mean (SD) 4.8 (2.2) 4.4 (2.3) 0.249
 < 5, % (n) 43.1 (47) 50 (42) 0.342
 Walks 400 m independently, % (n) 60 (66) 60.9 (53) 0.896
  1. SD Standard deviation, MNA Mini Nutritional Assessment, BMI Body Mass Index, FCI Functional comorbidity index, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, GDS-15 Geriatric Depression Scale-15, ADL Activities of Daily Living (Barthel Index), IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (Lawton-Brody).