Skip to main content

Table 5 Willingness-to-pay (HK$) for the attributes of care homes according to income, marital status, and caregiver’s age

From: Preference of caregivers on residential care homes for older persons with versus without communication problems: a discrete choice experiment

  Lower income (<HK$15,000) (n = 172) Higher income (HK$15,000+) (n = 79) P valuea
Coeff. 95%CI MWTP Coeff. 95%CI MWTP
Type of care homes: NGO care homes 0.41* (0.14, 0.69) 1407.4 0.33* (0.06, 0.61) 1418.3 0.676
Distance: half an hour to one hour travelling time 0.20 (− 0.08, 0.48)   0.13 (−0.14, 0.40)   0.724
Distance: Within half an hour travelling time 0.50* (0.17, 0.82) 1681.7 0.10 (−0.23, 0.44)   0.101
Room type: shared room (2–3 people) 0.40* (0.12, 0.68) 1357.0 0.24 (−0.03, 0.52)   0.437
Room type: single room 0.46* (0.10, 0.83) 1575.9 0.40* (0.05, 0.76) 1726.6 0.818
Manpower: more healthcare professionals 0.13 (−0.07, 0.32)   0.18 (0.00, 0.36)   0.719
Enhanced service: flexible choice of enhanced services 0.25* (0.05, 0.45) 850.0 0.55* (0.35, 0.74) 2345.2 0.037*
Copayment (per HK$1000) −0.29* (−0.41, − 0.18)   − 0.23* (− 0.34, − 0.13)   0.438
Opt-out −2.49* (−3.13, −1.84)   −3.60* (−4.57, −2.64)   0.060
  Unmarried older persons (n = 216) Married older persons (n = 67) P valuea
Coeff. 95%CI MWTP Coeff. 95%CI MWTP
Type of care homes: NGO care homes 0.36* (0.15, 0.57) 1532.9 0.56* (0.18, 0.94) 1540.0 0.358
Distance: half an hour to one hour travelling time 0.18 (−0.02, 0.39)   0.38 (0.00, 0.77)   0.371
Distance: Within half an hour travelling time 0.30* (0.04, 0.55) 1270.1 0.50* (0.04, 0.95) 1358.5 0.457
Room type: shared room (2–3 people) 0.35* (0.14, 0.56) 1476.8 0.47* (0.09, 0.85) 1285.7 0.577
Room type: single room 0.60* (0.33, 0.88) 2582.3 0.47 (−0.03, 0.97)   0.647
Manpower: more healthcare professionals 0.16* (0.01, 0.30) 675.7 0.26 (−0.01, 0.52)   0.526
Enhanced service: flexible choice of enhanced services 0.49* (0.34, 0.64) 2104.1 0.09 (−0.19, 0.37)   0.012*
Copayment (per HK$1000) −0.23* (−0.32, − 0.15)   −0.37* (− 0.51, − 0.22)   0.131
Opt-out −2.87* (−3.46, −2.28)   −2.43* (−3.27, − 1.59)   0.406
  Caregiver aged below 60 years (n = 137) Caregiver aged 60+ years (n = 146) P valuea
Coeff. 95%CI MWTP Coeff. 95%CI MWTP
Type of care homes: NGO care homes 0.42* (0.14, 0.70) 1514.8 0.39* (0.15, 0.64) 1509.5 0.905
Distance: half an hour to one hour travelling time 0.54* (0.26, 0.82) 1965.3 −0.04 (− 0.29, 0.20)   0.002*
Distance: Within half an hour travelling time 0.54* (0.19, 0.88) 1947.1 0.22 (− 0.07, 0.52)   0.178
Room type: shared room (2–3 people) 0.50* (0.23, 0.77) 1812.6 0.28* (0.02, 0.53) 1058.0 0.242
Room type: single room 1.02* (0.65, 1.40) 3713.6 0.19 (−0.13, 0.52)   0.001*
Manpower: more healthcare professionals 0.35* (0.17, 0.54) 1280.8 0.03 (−0.14, 0.21)   0.014*
Enhanced service: flexible choice of enhanced services 0.52* (0.33, 0.72) 1903.1 0.33* (0.15, 0.51) 1263.2 0.156
Copayment (per HK$1000) −0.28* (−0.38, − 0.17)   − 0.26* (− 0.36, − 0.16)   0.851
Opt-out −2.60* (−3.41, −1.80)   −2.85* (−3.46, −2.24)   0.630
  1. *P < 0.05; the reference levels of the attributes are: 1) Type of care homes: private for-profit homes; 2) Distance: Over one hour travelling time; 3) Room type: Shared room (4–6 people); 4) Manpower: more care workers; and 5) Enhanced service: limited choices in enhanced services
  2. aThe P values in this column that were derived from the interaction terms of the regression models indicate the difference of coefficient estimates of the same attribute across different income levels, marital status, or caregiver’s age. The coefficients in the table were calculated by adding the coefficients of the attribute main effects and the coefficients of the interaction terms between the attribute and any of the income level, marital status or caregivers’ age. The 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Delta method. Original model outcomes can be found in supplementary Tables S7, S8 and S9