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Table 2 Effect of visual impairment on changes in functioning and quality of life over time

From: Visual impairment as a predictor for deterioration in functioning: the Leiden 85-plus Study

  Basic annual change Additional annual change
  No visual impairment Moderate visual impairment Severe visual impairment
  β1 SE P Value β2 SE P Value β2 SE P Value
a. All participants (n = 548)
 BADL 1.10 0.076  < 0.001 0.27 0.112 0.017 0.35 0.146 0.018
 IADL 2.24 0.079  < 0.001 0.04 0.117 0.735 -0.12 0.152 0.430
 MMSE -0.74 0.051  < 0.001 -0.02 0.076 0.830 -0.02 0.099 0.820
 GDS 0.30 0.039  < 0.001 0.01 0.058 0.891 -0.05 0.079 0.566
 DJG 0.08 0.029 0.008 -0.10 0.043 0.023 -0.14 0.059 0.015
 Cantril -0.22 0.024  < 0.001 0.01 0.035 0.676 0.12 0.048 0.009
b. Participants with BADL = 9 (n = 256)
 BADL 1.06 0.089  < 0.001 0.05 0.139 0.704 0.21 0.207 0.321
 IADL 2.43 0.111  < 0.001 0.12 0.174 0.473 0.260 0.260 0.318
 MMSE -0.78 0.064  < 0.001 0.15 0.100 0.139 1.12 0.150 0.408
 GDS 0.27 0.047  < 0.001 0.03 0.073 0.662 0.08 0.116 0.503
 DJG 0.06 0.033 0.069 -0.06 0.051 0.248 -0.02 0.081 0.833
 Cantril -0.24 0.028  < 0.001 0.00 0.043 0.911 0.14 0.068 0.040
c. Participants with BADL > 9 (n = 291)
 BADL 1.17 0.129  < 0.001 0.48 0.178 0.007 0.41 0.209 0.052
 IADL 1.93 0.109  < 0.001 0.08 0.150 0.585 -0.13 0.177 0.462
 MMSE -0.71 0.084  < 0.001 -0.20 0.116 0.085 -0.14 0.137 0.315
 GDS 0.34 0.067  < 0.001 -0.02 0.094 0.850 -0.14 0.112 0.214
 DJG 0.11 0.053 0.039 -0.15 0.076 0.042 -0.25 0.091 0.006
 Cantril -0.20 0.042  < 0.001 0.01 0.059 0.814 0.10 0.070 0.167
  1. SE Standard error P Values were estimated by analysis of linear mixed models, significant when P Value < 0.05; function of the linear mixed model according to: y = α + βx. β firstly represents the basic annual change over time without impairment; and secondly the additional annual change for people with visual impairment.. β is given with corresponding SE