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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants (n = 548) depending on degree of visual impairment

From: Visual impairment as a predictor for deterioration in functioning: the Leiden 85-plus Study

  All n = 548 No visual impairment n = 215 Moderate visual impairment n = 215 Severe visual impairment n = 118 P-Value*
Demographics and health (No., %)
Male 184 (33.6) 84 (39.1) 68 (31.6) 32 (27.1) 0.021
Living arrangements: Independently 462 (84.3) 197 (91.6) 181 (84.2) 84 (71.2)  < 0.001
Education > elementary school˚ 193 (35.3) 88 (40.9) 66 (30.7) 39 (33.3) 0.089
High income˚ 271 (50.0) 122 (57.3) 103 (48.4) 46 (39.7) 0.002
Chronic diseases
 Arthritis/osteoarthritis ˚ 179 (32.8) 83 (38.8) 67 (31.3) 29 (24.6) 0.007
 Obstructive pulmonary disease 63 (11.5) 32 (14.9) 17 (7.9) 14 (11.9) 0.227
 Cerebrovascular accident ˚ 44 (8.1) 18 (8.4) 15 (7.0) 11 (9.4) 0.866
 Myocardial infarction ˚ 56 (10.3) 20 (9.3) 23 (10.7) 13 (11.0) 0.598
 Parkinson’s disease 11 (2.0) 5 (2.3) 2 (0.9) 4 (3.4) 0.704
 Malignancy ˚ 100 (18.3) 42 (19.5) 35 (16.3) 23 (19.8) 0.899
 Diabetes mellitus ˚ 79 (14.5) 26 (12.1) 24 (11.2) 29 (24.8) 0.006
 Severe cognitive impairment (MMSE < 19)˚ 89 (16.3) 18 (8.4) 38 (17.7) 33 (28.2)  < 0.001
 History fall˚ 93 (17.2) 40 (18.9) 32 (15.0) 21 (18.1) 0.916
 Hip fracture˚ 33 (6.1) 6 (2.8) 15 (7.0) 12 (10.3) 0.005
Functioning and quality of life (median, IQR):
Physical functioning
 BADL (n = 547) 10.0 (9.0–14.0) 9.0 (9.0–11.0) 10.0 (9.0–13.5) 11.0 (9.0–18.3)  < 0.001
 IADL (n = 547) 18.0 (12.0–25.0) 15.0 (11.0–21.0) 18.0 (12.8–25.0) 24.0 (16.0–33.0)  < 0.001
Cognitive functioning: MMSE 26.0 (23.0–28.0) 27.0 (25.0–29.0) 26.0 (22.0–28.0) 24.0 (19.0–28.0)  < 0.001
Psychological functioning: GDS (n = 475)# 2.0 (1.0–3.0) 1.0 (0.0–2.0) 2.0 (1.0–4.0) 2.0 (1.0–4.0)  < 0.001
Social functioning: DJG (n = 476)# 1.0 (0.0–3.0) 0.0 (0.0–2.0) 1.0 (0.0–3.0) 2.0 (0.0–4.0)  < 0.001
Quality of Life: Cantril (n = 521) 8.0 (7.0–9.0) 8.0 (7.0–9.0) 8.0 (7.0–9.0) 7.0 (6.0–8.0)  < 0.001
  1. BADL Basic Activities Daily Living (range 9–36); IADL Instrumental Activities Daily Living (range 9–36); MMSE Mini Mental State Examination (range 0–30); GDS Geriatric Depression Scale (range 0–15); DJG De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (range 0–11); Cantril Cantril’s ladder (range 0–10); IQR Interquartile Range. The median and interquartile ranges are provided when continuous variables have an asymmetric distribution. For categorical variables percentages are presented. *P Value for between group comparison with regard to vision, measured with P for trend: for categorical data with Linear-by-Linear Association, for continuous data with Jonckheere-Terpstra Test. ˚ Missing data for specific variables, according to three groups (severe – moderate – no impairment): 0–7 missing. #Assessed only in participants with MMSE > 18