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Table 2 Characteristics of participants with and without polypharmacy

From: Association of personality traits with polypharmacy among community-dwelling older adults in Japan: a cross-sectional analysis of data from the SONIC study

  Men Women
No Polypharmacy Polypharmacy P
-value
No Polypharmacy Polypharmacy P
-value
(N = 312) (N = 98) (N = 331) (N = 125)
Subjective economic status (%)    0.051    0.031
 Economically difficult 80 (26.5) 16 (16.8)   59 (18.7) 37 (30.1)  
 Usually adequate 152 (50.3) 61 (64.2)   180 (57.0) 58 (47.2)  
 Economically adequate 70 (23.2) 18 (18.9)   77 (24.4) 28 (22.8)  
Drinking habits (current; %) 200 (66.2) 58 (61.1) 0.357 47 (14.9) 7 (5.7) 0.009
Smoking habits (current; %) 51 (16.9) 15 (15.8) 0.802 7 (2.2) 5 (4.1) 0.286
Body mass index (≥ 25; %) 65 (21.5) 26 (27.4) 0.237 64 (20.3) 31 (25.2) 0.258
IADL (dependent; %) 52 (17.2) 19 (20.0) 0.537 3 (0.9) 3 (2.4) 0.227
Depressive mood (depressive; %) 52 (17.2) 21 (22.1) 0.284 57 (18.0) 32 (26.0) 0.062
Number of chronic diseases (%)     < 0.001     < 0.001
 0–1 127 (42.1) 13 (13.7)   115 (36.4) 9 (7.3)  
 2 88 (29.1) 13 (13.7)   92 (29.1) 24 (19.5)  
 ≥ 3 87 (28.8) 69 (72.6)   109 (34.5) 90 (73.2)  
Personality traits (mean ± SD)
 Neuroticism 20.4 ± 5.4 21.8 ± 4.9 0.020 21.9 ± 5.4 23.2 ± 5.6 0.021
 Extraversion 26.3 ± 5.2 26.0 ± 5.6 0.686 27.0 ± 5.2 25.6 ± 5.1 0.012
 Openness 26.4 ± 4.4 26.0 ± 3.9 0.424 27.2 ± 4.3 27.5 ± 4.6 0.483
 Agreeableness 30.5 ± 4.2 30.6 ± 4.1 0.934 32.9 ± 4.4 32.4 ± 4.5 0.376
 Conscientiousness 30.1 ± 4.8 29.8 ± 4.6 0.640 30.1 ± 5.3 30.0 ± 4.7 0.839
  1. IADL instrumental activities of daily living, SD standard deviation
  2. Tested using the chi-square test or t-test