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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Association of personality traits with polypharmacy among community-dwelling older adults in Japan: a cross-sectional analysis of data from the SONIC study

  Men Women P-value
(N = 397) (N = 439)
Subjective economic status (%)    0.679
 Economically difficult 96 (24.2) 96 (21.9)  
 Usually adequate 213 (53.7) 238 (54.2)  
 Economically adequate 88 (22.2) 105 (23.9)  
Drinking habits (current; %) 258 (65.0) 54 (12.3)  < 0.001
Smoking habits (current; %) 66 (16.6) 12 (2.7)  < 0.001
Body mass index (≥ 25; %) 91 (22.9) 95 (21.6) 0.656
IADL (dependence; %) 71 (17.9) 6 (1.4)  < 0.001
Depressive mood (depressive; %) 73 (18.4) 89 (20.3) 0.491
Number of chronic diseases (%)    0.077
 0–1 140 (35.3) 124 (28.2)  
 2 101 (25.4) 116 (26.4)  
 ≥ 3 156 (39.3) 199 (45.3)  
Number of medications (mean ± SD) 2.8 ± 2.8 3.1 ± 3.2 0.131
Polypharmacy (≥ 5; %) 95 (23.9) 123 (28.0) 0.179
Personality traits (mean ± SD)
 Neuroticism 20.7 ± 5.3 22.3 ± 5.5  < 0.001
 Extraversion 26.2 ± 5.3 26.6 ± 5.2 0.268
 Openness 26.3 ± 4.3 27.2 ± 4.4 0.003
 Agreeableness 30.6 ± 4.2 32.7 ± 4.4  < 0.001
 Conscientiousness 30.0 ± 4.7 30.0 ± 5.1 0.958
  1. IADL instrumental activities of daily living, SD standard deviation
  2. Tested using the chi-square test or t-test