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Table 1 Number of chews and chewing time according to the hardness of the test foods

From: Effects of textured food masticatory performance in older people with different dental conditions

Level Hardness Natural teeth Full denture
Number of chews Chewing time (s) Number of chews Chewing time (s)
Radish Kimchi Level 1 3.19 N 13.63 ± 5.83 a 10.44 ± 3.31 a 18.00 ± 10.31 ns 14.53 ± 8.09 ns1,2
Radish Kimchi Level 2 6.67 N 17.83 ± 7.13 ab 13.67 ± 4.94 ab 20.38 ± 12.24 ns 16.05 ± 7.00 ns
Radish Kimchi Level 3 9.01 N 20.17 ± 7.12 abc 14.27 ± 4.57 ab 25.38 ± 14.19 ns 17.06 ± 6.08 ns
Radish Kimchi Level 4 12.62 N 24.08 ± 8.08 bc 16.65 ± 4.56 ab 30.75 ± 16.72 ns 19.61 ± 7.42 ns
Radish Kimchi Level 5 24.48 N 27.75 ± 7.92 cd 19.40 ± 5.75 bc 34.63 ± 15.70 ns 22.01 ± 7.70 ns
Radish Kimchi Level 6 38.66 N 34.67 ± 8.77 d 24.40 ± 8.82 c 42.25 ± 18.75 ns 27.05 ± 8.42 ns
F 23.88 18.48 3.00 3.02
P  < .001  < .001 0.021 0.021
  1. One-way ANOVA results and multiple comparisons performed using the Bonferroni correction of the differences
  2. One-way ANOVA p < 0.05, Bonferroni correction p < 0.003
  3. 1Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation
  4. 2A value in a column with different letters (a–d) differs significantly. Means in the same column with the same letter do not differ significantly