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Table 1 Characteristics of studies extracted

From: Nutritional status and associated factors of older persons in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review

Author Year of publication Study title Country population Study design Sample size Sampling strategy Summary of findings
Andia, Fourera, Soulemane., Mamane,& Adehossi. 2019 Evaluation of nutritional status at household in elderly assessed by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) Niger Elderly persons Descriptive cross sectional study 384 Multi-stage sampling method Nutritional status was characterised by BMI and the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool. MNA score of ≥24 points describes a well-nourished status. A score of 17 to 23.5 points indicates a risk of malnutrition, < 17 points indicate malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition was 7.8% which increased with the elderly from 5.8% (60 to 74 years) to 6.7% for more than 85 years old.
Jesus, Guerchet, Pilleron, Fayemendy, Mouanga, Mbelesso,& Desport, 2017 Undernutrition and obesity among elderly people living in two developing cities: prevalence and associated factors in the EDAC study Central African Republic (CAR), Congo Aged person 65 years and above Cross-sectional study 990 Random sampling BMI < 18.5 was considered undernutrition, between 18.5 and 24.9 is considered normal weight, a BMI between 25.0 and 29.9 overweight, and > 30.0 obesity.
The study was conducted in two countries. While undernutrition in Congo was lower than in CAR (9.5% vs 29.5%), obesity was rather high in Congo (14.6%) than in CAR (2.7%). Socio-economic actors and food consumption were associated with malnutrition.
Dorcah Kwamboka Okinyi 2021 Nutritional Status Among the Geriatrics in Nyamira County, Kenyaperson Kenya Persons 60 years and above person Cross-sectional study 230 multi-stage sampling technique BMI and MNA were used to determine the nutritional status of participants. Based on the BMI measure, person31% were malnourished, and 42% were at risk. MNA scores exhibited that (54%) were malnourished, 29% were at risk and 17% were well nourished. Marital status (χ2 = 27.7699, P < 0.01), level of education (χ2 = 37.260, P < 0.001) and level of stress (χ2 = 57.712, P < 0.001) were predictors of malnutrition.
Alphas, C., Atuhairwe, C., Amongin, D., & Taremwa, M. I. 2018 Determinants of nutritional status among geriatric populations in Kween District, Eastern Uganda Uganda Older persons Cross-sectional survey 250 Consecutive sampling approach BMI and Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) were used to determine the nutritional status of participants. The prevalence of malnutrition was evaluated to be 6%. The determinants of geriatric malnutrition include: age, weight, level of education, number of children, declined food intake, and as well neuropsychological problems.
Adebusoye, L.A., Ajayi, I. O., Dailo, M. D., & Ogunniyi, A. O. 2012 Nutritional status of older persons presenting in a primary care clinic in Nigeria Nigeria Older persons 60 years and above Cross-sectional descriptive study 500 Simple random sampling A validated and standardised Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool was used to assess the nutritional status of participants. BMI, mid-arm and
calf circumference, and weight were used to determine the nutritional status of participants. The prevalence of undernutrition was 7.8%, while that of overweight was 54.1%. The aged with the oral problem were more likely to suffer undernutrition.
Robb, L., Walsh, C. M., Nel, M., Nel, A., Odendaal, H., & van Aardt, R. 2017 Malnutrition in the elderly residing in long-term care facilities: a cross-sectional survey using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) screening tool South Africa Older persons residing in a long-term care facility Cross-sectional 162 Simple random sampling The nutritional status of participants was assessed using the MNA questionnaire. BMI, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and calf circumference (CC) were used to measure malnutrition. Participants from the low socio-economic area had a higher prevalence of malnutrition (3.2%) than those in high socio-economic areas (11.3%), while the dietary intake was significantly associated with malnutrition.
De Rouvray, C., Jesus, P., Guerchet, M., Fayemendy, P., Mouanga, A. M., Mbelesso, P.,…& Desport, J. C. 2014 The nutritional status of older people with and without dementia living in an urban setting in Central Africa The central African Republic and the Republic of Congo Aged over 65 years Cross-sectional survey 1016 Cluster sampling BMI was used to determine the nutritional status of participants. The prevalence of undernutrition was 19.2%. Compared with healthy people, persons with dementia had an increased prevalence of undernutrition (32.0% vs 17.7%). Poor diet was as well associated with being underweight.
Aganiba, B. A., Owusu, W. B., Steiner-Asiedu, M., & Dittoh, S. 2015 Association between lifestyle and health variables with nutritional status of the elderly in the northern region of Ghana Ghana Aged 65 years and above in the northern region Cross-sectional study 400 A multi-stage sampling technique Using BMI (in kg/ m2) as an indicator for nutritional status, 18.0% of the participants were underweight, 60.5% had normal weight, and 21.5% were overweight. Alcohol consumption and sight problems were found to have a significant negative association with BMI. More males (19.8%) than females (16.6%) had a BMI less than 18.50 kg/m2. On the other hand, more females (about 25%) than males (17%) were overweight.
Tessfamichael, D., Gete, A. A., & Wassie, M. M. De Rouvray 2014 High prevalence of undernutrition among elderly people in northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study Ethiopia All old people 65 years and above in Gonda town Cross-sectional study 757 Two-stage cluster sampling method was used BMI was used to measure the nutritional status of participants. The study indicated a high prevalence of undernutrition (21.9%) among the elderly. Old age range, gender, educational status, dietary diversity and socio-economic status were found to be factors affecting undernutrition.
Turkson, R. K. D., & Maphepha T. F. 2019 Using novel nutritional assessment tool to assess the nutritional status of the elderly in Mazenod: the case of old-age pension scheme in Lesotho Lesotho Elderly 70 years and above Cross-sectional qualitative and quantitative study 60 Random sampling The Novel Nutritional Status Assessment tool was used to assess the nutritional status of elderly persons.
50% of the elderly are at risk of malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition in males (17%) is lower than in females (28%).
Maila, G., Audain, K., & Marinda, P. A. 2021 Association between dietary diversity, health and nutritional status of older persons in rural Zambia Zambia Older persons in Milenge Cross-sectional, descriptive study 135 Random sampling Anthropometric measurements (weight and height) were used to determine the prevalence of malnutrition among the respondents by calculating the body mass index (BMI). Thirty-four percent of the participants were underweight, and 8.1% were overweight. More men had severe underweight whereas the opposite was observed in women. Thus, more women were either overweight or obese. Dietary intake was significantly associated with malnutrition.
Abdulgafar Lekan Olawumi, Bukar Alhaji Grema, Abdullahi Kabir Suleiman, Yakubu Sule Omeiza, Godpower Chinedu Michael, Abdulrahman Shuaibu 2021 Nutritional status and morbidity patterns of the elderly in a Northwestern Nigerian hospital: A cross-sectional study Nigeria Person Patients 60 years and above Descriptive cross-sectional study 348 Systematic random sampling BMI, mid-arm circumference and calf circumference (CC) were used to predict the nutritional status of participants. Prevalence of malnutrition was 25.3%, and those at risk of malnutrition were 56.6%. Advanced age, lack of formal education, low monthly income, chronic respiratory diseases, physical inactivity and duration of chronic disease for more than 10 years were the predictors of malnutrition.
Cheserek, M. J., Tuitoek, P. J., Waudo, J. N., Msuya, J. M., & Kikafunda, J. K.  2012a Anthropometric characteristics and nutritional status of older persons in the Lake Victoria Basin of East Africa: region, sex, and age differences: original research Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania Older persons aged 60 years and above Cross-sectional study 227 men and 310 women Measures used were weight, height, arm span, mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF). Overall underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) was 26.4, 58.3% were normal (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), 10.8% were overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2), and 4.5% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). Older men (29.5%) were significantly more underweight (p-value< 0.05) than older women (24.2%), overweight (12.5%) and obesity (6.8%) were significantly higher in older women
Herve Hien, Abdramane Berthe, Maxime Koine Drabo, Nicolas Meda, Blahima Konate, Fatoumata Tou,
Fatoumata Badini-Kinda and Jean Macq
2014 Prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity among the elderly in Burkina Faso: cross-sectional study Burkina Faso Elderly persons 60 years and above Cross-sectional study 389 Random clusters BMI was used to determine the nutritional status of older persons. About 39% of the older persons were malnourished. Those aged ≥70 had significantly more malnutrition (50% vs. 31%, P = 0.0003) than those aged 60–69.
B. Blankson, A. Hall 2012 The Anthropometric Status Of Elderly Women in Rural Ghana and Factors Associated With Low BMI. Ghana Elderly women aged 60 to 92 years Cross-sectional survey 59 - The weight, height, half arm span and mid-upper arm circumference (MUaC) of each woman were measured; body mass index (BMI) and body mass for arm span (BMa) were calculated. 41% of women were underweight, and 16.9% were overweight or obese. Factors associated with a low BMI were: age (P = 0.001), chewing tobacco (P = 0.002), drinking alcohol (P = 0.012), a visual acuity score of < 30% (P = 0.038), using a walking aid (P = 0.016) and the number of children who gave the women cash (P = 0.005).
Cheserek, M. J., Waudo, J. N., Tuitoek, P. J., Msuya, J. M., & Kikafunda, J. K 2012b Nutritional Vulnerability of Older Persons Living in Urban Areas of Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa: A Cross Sectional Survey Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania Persons aged 60 years and above Cross-sectional study 128 Systematic random selection BMI was used as a nutritional status indicator by comparison to WHO cut-offs. The prevalence of underweight was 16.5%, with men (24.1%) being significantly more likely to be underweight (P < 0.05) than women (12.3%). Overall, 61.2% had normal body mass indices, 13.2% were overweight, and 9.1% were obese. Inadequate food access, poor health, living arrangements, and poor eating patterns were the main nutritional risk factors
Faith Agbozo,
Joyce Amardi-Mfoafo,
Helen Dwase,
Basma Ellahi
2018 Nutrition knowledge, dietary patterns and anthropometric indices of older persons in four peri-urban communities in Ga West municipality, Ghana Ghana Elderly aged 60–70 years cross-sectional survey 120 Purposive Sampling technique BMI was according to WHO age and sex-specific guidelines to determine the nutritional status of the aged. Underweight was 10%, while 21.7% were overweight or obese (16.6%). Positive insignificant corrections existed between knowledge and nutritional status (r = 0.261) and diet quality (r = 0.415). However, a strong significant (p = 0.027) positive correlation (r = 0.699) existed between diet quality and nutritional status
Afolabi, W. A. O., Olayiwola, I. O., Sanni, S. A., & Oyawoye, O. 2015 Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of the Aged in Low Income Areas of Southwest, Nigeria Nigeria Persons aged 58–99 years cross-sectional and descriptive 140 A multistage sampling technique BMI was used to determine the nutritional status of the aged. The prevalence of underweight was low (2.9%). Being overweight was high (20% for men and 22.8% for women). Weight and BMI are influenced by the energy intake of the men (r = 0.439, p = 0.008); (r = 0.352,p = 0.038). There was a high prevalence of overweight which coexists with underweight among the aged
GT Fadupin 2012 Social Support, Environmental Condition and Nutritional Status of the Elderly in Ibadan Nigeria Persons 60 years and above   150   BMI was used to classify the nutritional status of the aged. The BMI of the respondents indicates that 48.0, 7.3, and 44.7% of the respondents had normal weight, underweight, and overweight or obesity, respectively
Ogechi Chinyere Nzeagwu 2016 Evaluation of Nutritional Status Using Anthropometry and Biochemical Indices of Community Dwelling Older Persons in Nigeria Nigeria older persons of 65 years and above cross-sectional 600 Multi-stage random sampling BMI and MUAC were used to determine the nutritional status of participants. Most (62.7%) had normal BMI, while 21.33% were overweight. About 75.6% had normal MUAC, and 24.33% were malnourished.