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Table 1 Sample characteristics at baseline

From: Functional limitations before and after cancer diagnosis and contributing factors: findings from the China health and retirement longitudinal study

  All participants (n = 7, 452) Participants with cancer (n = 139) Participants without cancer (n = 7, 313) Group difference††
Variables Mean
(Freq)
sd (%) Range Mean(Freq) sd (%) Range Mean (Freq) sd (%) Range p-value
Age 59.06 8.94 45–95 57.81 9.43 45–80 59.08 8.94 45–95 0.29
Male (3477) (46.66) 0–1 (46) (33.09) 0–1 (3431) (46.92) 0–1 0.00
Education* 1.10 0.33) 1–3 1.072 0.259 1–2 1.103 0.34 1–3 0.43
Less than lower secondary (6764) (90.77)   (129) (92.81)   (6635) (90.73)   
Upper secondary and vocational training (613) (8.23)   (10) (7.19)   (603) (8.25)   
Tertiary (75) (1.01)   - -   (75) (1.03)   
Marital status 1.77 1.92 1–8 1.78 1.96 1–8 1.77 (1.92) 1–8 0.90
Married (6279) (84.26)   (117) (84.17)   (6162) (84.26)   
Partnered (285) (3.82)   (6) (4.32)   (280) (3.83)   
Separated (31) (0.42)   - -   (31) (0.42)   
Divorced (40) (0.54)   - -   (40) (0.55)   
Widowed (772) (10.36)   (15) 10.79   (756) (10.34)   
Never married (45) (0.60)   (1) 0.72   (44) (0.60)   
Have fallen down in the last two years 0.16 0.37 0–1 (24) 17 0–1 (1195) (16.47) 0–1 0.77
Feelings of pain intensity 1.70 1.10 1–5 2.07 1.25 1–5 1.70 1.10 1–5  < .001
Depressive symptoms 15.08 5.22 1–32 17.15 5.84 8–32 15.04 5.19 1–32  < .0001
Self-reported memory problems§ 4.15 0.83 1–5 4.333 0.758 2–5 4.146 0.83 1–5 0.10
Excellent (24) 0.33   - -   (24) (0.33)   
Very good (330) (4.48)   (4) (2.90)   (326) (4.51)   
Good (906) (12.29)   (12) (8.70)   (894) (12.36)   
Fair (3371) (45.73)   (56) (40.58)   (3315) (45.83)   
Poor (2740) (37.17)   (66) (47.83)   (2674) (36.97)   
Number of people in the same household 3.67 1.84 1–16 3.77 1.95 1–10 3.67 1.84 1–16 0.53
Any weekly contact with children|| 0.92 0.26 0–1 0.94 0.24 0–1 0.92 0.27 0–1 0.67
Yes (6764) (92.42)   (127) (93.38)   (6637) (92.40)   
No (555) (7.58)   (9) (6.62)   (546) (7.60)   
Participated in any social activities ** 0.47 0.50) 0–1 0.48 0.50 0–1 0.47 0.50 0–1 0.79
Yes (3457) (46.73)   (66) (47.83)   (3391) (46.71)   
No (3941) (53.27)   (72) (52.17)   (3869) (53.29)   
Cancer diagnosis timing - -   - - 0–1 - - -  
At baseline (70) (0.94)   (70) (51.09)   - - -  
Wave 2 (80) (1.08)   (80) (58.39)   - - -  
Wave 3 (139) (.88)   (139) (100)   - - -  
  1. *Education was measured as 0 = None, 1 = Less than lower secondary, 2 = Upper secondary and vocational training, 3 = Tertiary, in the harmonized CHARLS data set
  2. Measured at baseline by the question “Did you feel any pain?” using a response scale ranging from 1 = None, 2 = A little, 3 = Some, 4 = Quite a bit, and 5 = A lot
  3. Depressive symptoms were measured by CESD-10 score
  4. §Self-reported memory was measured by a single item “How would you rate your memory at the present time?” using a response scale ranging from 1 = Excellent to 5 = Poor
  5. ||Modes of contact included in person/phone/mail/email
  6. **Participation in any social activities was measured as 0 = no, and 1 = yes. Social activities included interacted with friend, played Ma-jong, chess, cards, or went to a community club, went to a sporting event, participated in a social group, or participated in some other sort of club, took part in a community-related organization, took part in voluntary or charity work, and attended an educational or training course
  7. ††Group difference was examined using t-test or Chi-square comparing participants with vs. without cancer diagnosis