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Table 2 Multilevel regression results of effect of WeChat usage on depressive symptoms

From: Association between using social media WeChat and depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older people: findings from a national survey

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  OR (95%CI) P value aOR (95%CI) P aOR (95%CI) P value
WeChat usage 0.65 (0.55 -0.77) < 0.001 0.74 (0.63-0.89) < 0.01 0.76 (0.62-0.94) < 0.05
Age   1 (0.99-1.01) 0.94 0.99 (0.98-1) < 0.1
Gender      
 Male   Ref   Ref  
 Female   1.3 (1.12-1.52) <0.01 1.34 (1.08-1.66) < 0.01
Race      
 Non-minority   Ref   Ref  
 Minority   1.29 (0.93-1.79) 0.13 1.21 (0.87-1.7) 0.26
Education      
 Primary school   Ref   Ref  
 Middle school   0.81 (0.7-0.95) < 0.01 0.77 (0.65-0.9) < 0.01
 High school and above   0.68 (0.3-1.53) 0.353 0.67 (0.29-1.54) 0.35
Living area      
 Urban   Ref   Ref  
 Rural   1.42 (1.2-1.69) < 0.001 1.5 (1.25-1.81) < 0.001
Marital status      
 Never married   Ref   Ref  
 Married   0.22 (0.04-1.13) <0.1 1 (0.17-5.77) 0.10
 Divorced or separate   0.26 (0.05-1.41) 0.12 0.67 (0.11-3.95) 0.65
Income category      
 ≤25% (lower quartile)   Ref   Ref  
 26%-50%   1.25 (0.87-1.82) 0.23 1.21 (0.82-1.8) 0.34
 51%-75%   0.91 (0.59-1.43) 0.7 0.9 (0.56-1.44) 0.66
 ≥75%   0.7 (0.6-0.82) < 0.001 0.73 (0.62-0.87) < 0.001
Smoke      
 Non-smoker     Ref  
 Smoker     0.96 (0.79-1.16) 0.67
Drink      
 Non-drinker     Ref  
 Drinker     0.93 (0.84-1.03) 0.17
General Health     1.42 (1.29-1.57) < 0.001
Life satisfaction     1.21 (1.18-1.25) < 0.001
Disability     1.29 (1.05-1.6) < 0.05
Comorbidity number     1.08 (1.02-1.13) < 0.01
ADL     1.45 (1.14-1.85) < 0.01
Sleep hour at night     0.88 (0.84-0.92) < 0.001
Sleep minute at noon     1 (1.00-1.00) 0.79
Vigorous activity     1.03 (1.00-1.06) < 0.05
Moderate activity     0.98 (0.96-1.01) 0.19
Mild activity     0.98 (0.95-1.01) 0.24
Social activities attendance     0.99 (0.93-1.06) 0.82
Constant 0.23 (0.21-0.26) < 0.001 0.39 (0.06-2.4) < 0.01 0.01 (0.0-0.09) < 0.001
  1. aOR adjusted Odds ratio, ADL Activities of Daily Living