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Table 1 Characteristics of sample before PSM and after PSM by WeChat users and non-WeChat users

From: Association between using social media WeChat and depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older people: findings from a national survey

  Before PSM (N = 11338) After PSM (N = 5415)
  WeChat user (N = 1632) Non-WeChat user (N = 9706) P value WeChat user (N = 1599) Non-WeChat user (N = 3816) P value
With depressive symptoms (CES-D>10) 212 (13.0) 2140 (22.0) < 0.001 211 (13.2) 720 (18.9) < 0.001
Age 55.5 ± 7.3 62.8 ± 10.0 < 0.001 55.6 ± 7.3 57.2 ± 7.8 < 0.001
Female 697 (42.7) 4690 (48.3) < 0.001 681 (42.6) 1695 (44.4) 0.22
Minority 111 (6.8) 741 (7.6) 0.23 110 (6.9) 254 (6.7) 0.77
Rural residence 764 (46.8) 7618 (78.5) < 0.001 764 (47.8) 2486 (65.1) < 0.001
Married 1541 (94.4) 8439 (86.9) < 0.001 1511 (94.5) 3578 (93.8) 0.44
Middle school and higher education 1248 (76.5) 3143 (32.4) < 0.001 1215 (76.0) 2249 (58.9) < 0.001
Equal or higher than average income 1076 (65.9) 3376 (34.8) < 0.001 1043 (65.2) 1994 (52.3) < 0.001
Alcohol drinker 773 (47.4) 6368 (65.6) < 0.001 837 (52.3) 1481 (38.8) < 0.001
Smoker 1612 (98.8) 9565 (98.5) 0.11 1056 (66.0) 2535 (66.4) 0.89
Disabled 180 (11.0) 1583 (16.3) < 0.001 177 (11.1) 490 (12.8) < 0.1
Self-report very good and good general health 674 (41.3) 2789 (28.7) < 0.001 652 (40.8) 1260 (33.0) < 0.001
Number of comorbidities 1.7 ± 1.6 1.9 ± 1.7 < 0.001 1.7 ± 1.6 1.7 ± 1.6 0.81
Life satisfaction score 13.1 ± 3.5 12.7 ± 4.1 < 0.001 13.1 ± 3.5 12.8 ± 3.6 < 0.01
Completely independent in activities of daily Living 1620 (99.3) 9238 (95.2) <0.001 1587 (99.2) 3722 (97.5) <0.05
Sleep at night (hours) 6.4 ± 1.9 6.5 ± 1.9 0.86 6.4 ± 1.4 6.5 ± 1.7 0.43
Sleep at noon (minute) 40.0 ± 45.6 43.0 ± 50.1 < 0.05 39.6 ± 45.9 41.8 ± 48.0 0.12
Days of vigorous sport in a week 1.5 ± 2.6 1.8 ± 2.8 < 0.01 1.5 ± 2.6 1.9 ± 2.9 < 0.001
Days of moderate sport in a week 3.3 ± 3.1 2.7 ±3.2 < 0.001 3.4 ± 3.2 3.0 ± 3.2 < 0.001
Days of mild sport in a week 5.9 ± 2.2 5.3 ± 2.8 < 0.001 5.9 ± 2.2 5.6 ± 2.6 < 0.001
Attendance number of social activities 2.5 ± 1.5 0.8 ± 1.0 < 0.001 2.5 ± 1.5 0.9 ± 1.1 < 0.001
  1. Values of continuous data are the mean ± SD, values of category data are n (%)
  2. PSM propensity score matching, CES-D The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale