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Table 4 Intervention effects on secondary outcomes

From: Effectiveness of workshops to teach a home-based exercise program (BEST at Home) for preventing falls in community-dwelling people aged 65 years and over: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial

Outcome measure Intervention Mean (SD), n Control Mean (SD), n Mean difference (95% CI) P value
Falls Efficacy Scale-International (7–28)b c
 Baseline 9.7 (3.3) n = 307 9.4 (2.9) n = 309   
 3 months 9.1 (2.7) n = 262 9.2 (2.7) n = 250 0.50 (0.2–0.8) 0.004*
 6 months 9.2 (2.8) n = 243 9.3 (2.9) n = 250 0.39 (0.001–0.8) 0.049*
 12 months 9.1 (2.7) n = 231 9.4 (2.9) n = 235 0.46 (0.006–0.9) 0.047*
Quality of life – physical (SF12 physical component summary score)a c
 Baseline 48.0 (7.7) n = 304 47.8 (7.4) n = 298   
 3 months 48.5 (7.6) n = 257 48.1 (7.0) n = 243 −0.28 (−1.2–0.6) 0.534
 6 months 48.0 (8.2) n = 238 47.7 (7.8) n = 244 0.26 (− 0.8–1.3) 0.633
12 months 48.5 (7.6) n = 227 47.2 (8.7) n = 228 −1.1 (−2.3–0.008) 0.052
Quality of life – mental (SF12 mental component summary score)a c
 Baseline 53.4 (5.7) n = 304 53.6 (5.4) n = 298   
 3 months 54.1 (5.6) n = 257 54.4 (5.3) n = 243 −0.1 (−1.1–0.8) 0.808
 6 months 54.2 (5.3) n = 238 54.1 (5.1) n = 244 −0.7 (−1.6–0.3) 0.185
 12 months 54.4 (5.0) n = 227 54.2 (4.8) n = 228 −0.1 (−1.1–0.8) 0.824
Physical activity, accelerometer (counts per minute)a
 Baseline 239.4 (110.6) n = 297 229.7 (103.4) n = 288   
 6 months 245.5 (111.0) n = 230 238.4 (112.9) n = 236 0.4 (−14.1–14.8) 0.960
 12 months 248.6 (111.0) n = 205 245.5 (119.1) n = 193 3.2 (−10.7–17.0) 0.653
Daily steps, measured with accelerometer(n)a
 Baseline 5726 (2425) n = 297 5540 (2394) n = 288   
 6 months 5957 (2653) n = 231 5689 (2337) n = 236 −105 (− 429–219) 0.525
 12 months 5958 (2532) n = 205 5916 (2638) n = 193 90 (−223–402) 0.572
Moderate-vigorous physical activity, minutes/day (measured with accelerometer)a c
 Baseline 18.9 (17.4) n = 297 17.2 (16.8) n = 288   
 6 months 20.0 (18.1) n = 231 17.6 (17.1) n = 236 −0.4 (−3.1–2.3) 0.775
 12 months 19.8 (18.0) n = 205 19.0 (18.6) n = 193 0.3 (−2.1–2.8) 0.785
Total physical activity, hours per weeka d
 Baseline 33.4 (19.1) n = 306 34.3 (19.2) n = 309   
 3 months 33.4 (19.4) n = 260 33.1 (18.1) n = 247 −1.1 (−3.6–1.5) 0.412
 6 months 31.7 (17.3) n = 244 33.0 (17.6) n = 250 0.9 (−1.7–3.5) 0.494
 12 months 31.3 (16.7) n = 229 32.5 (17.6) n = 235 0.9 (−1.7–3.6) 0.491
Planned physical activity (excluding walking), hours per weeka c d
 Baseline 2.3 (3.8) n = 307 2.2 (3.4) n = 310   
 3 months 2.8 (3.8) n = 262 2.7 (3.1) n = 251 −0.2 (− 0.8–0.5) 0.575
 6 months 2.7 (3.6) n = 244 2.4 (2.9) n = 250 −0.04 (− 0.7–0.6) 0.895
 12 months 2.1 (3.1) n = 234 2.1 (3.5) n = 237 0.2 (−0.4–0.9) 0.514
Total walking, hours per weeka c d
 Baseline 4.7 (5.6) n = 307 4.6 (4.8) n = 310   
 3 months 5.3 (6.7) n = 261 5.0 (4.7) n = 249 −0.2 (−1.2–0.8) 0.702
 6 months 4.5 (4.2) n = 242 4.8 (5.1) n = 250 0.4 (−0.5–1.3) 0.350
 12 months 5.1 (5.6) n = 234 5.0 (6.1) n = 237 −0.03 (−1.1–1.0) 0.951
Incidental physical activity (including walking), hours per weeka d
 Baseline 28.4 (18.2) n = 306 29.3 (17.7) n = 309   
 3 months 27.7 (17.4) n = 261 27.4 (16.6) n = 246 −0.8 (−3.1–1.6) 0.519
 6 months 26.2 (16.6) n = 243 28.2 (16.9) n = 246 1.5 (−1.0–4.0) 0.245
 12 months 25.9 (16.0) n = 229 27.3 (16.2) n = 235 0.87 (−1.6–3.3) 0.487
Body Mass Index (BMI), kg/m2
 Baseline 28.7 (5.2) n = 307 28.4 (5.1) n = 309   
 3 months 28.1 (5.1) n = 243 27.9 (4.8) n = 239 0.15 (−0.05–0.4) 0.132
 6 months 28.3 (5.0) n = 209 28.1 (5.0) n = 213 −0.07 (− 0.3–0.1) 0.525
Short physical performance battery, 0-12a c
 Baseline 10.9 (1.5) n = 307 10.8 (1.5) n = 309   
 3 months 11.1 (1.4) n = 244 10.9 (1.3) n = 239 −0.06 (−0.3–0.1) 0.537
 6 months 11.2 (1.4) n = 209 11.3 (1.1) n = 213 0.17 (−0.04–0.39) 0.108
Short physical performance battery-continuous summary performance score (CSPS), 0-3c
 Baseline 2.52 (0.22) n = 307 2.50 (0.23) n = 309   
 3 months 2.55 (0.23) n = 244 2.53 (0.19) n = 239 −0.01 (−0.04–0.02) 0.522
 6 months 2.56 (0.24) n = 208 2.57 (0.17) n = 213 0.03 (−0.002–0.06) 0.070
Sit to stand, time for 5 sit to stands, secb
 Baseline 11.8 (3.5) n = 300 12.0 (3.4) n = 303   
 3 months 11.0 (3.6) n = 235 11.4 (3.4) n = 234 0.15 (−0.35–0.66) 0.548
 6 months 10.4 (3.6) n = 200 11.0 (4.2) n = 211 0.12 (−0.48–0.73) 0.688
Gait speed, time to walk 4 m, secb
 Baseline 2.8 (0.7) n = 307 2.9 (0.8) n = 309   
 3 months 2.6 (0.7) n = 244 2.8 (0.6) n = 239 0.09 (0.003–0.19) 0.043*
 6 months 2.7 (0.6) n = 208 2.8 (0.6) n = 213 −0.01 (−0.1–0.08) 0.819
Standing balance, sum of feet together, semi-tandem, tandem stance times, sec, 0-30a c
 Baseline 29.0 (2.9) n = 307 28.7 (3.5) n = 309   
 3 months 29.3 (2.3) n = 243 28.8 (2.9) n = 239 −0.19 (−0.71–0.32) 0.461
 6 months 29.3 (2.8) n = 209 29.5 (1.7) n = 213 0.51 (−0.0002–1.0) 0.050
Single leg stance time, sec, 0-10a c
 Baseline 8.4 (2.7) n = 259 8.3 (2.8) n = 249   
 3 months 9.0 (2.3) n = 216 8.7 (2.3) n = 192 −0.32 (−0.86–0.22) 0.244
 6 months 9.2 (2.0) n = 185 8.9 (2.3) n = 190 −0.21 (− 0.77–0.35) 0.463
Alternate step test, time for 8 steps onto 18 cm stepb
 Baseline 8.3 (2.5) n = 302 8.4 (2.1) n = 302   
 3 months 7.7 (2.4) n = 236 8.1 (2.1) n = 237 0.26 (−0.06–0.58) 0.112
 6 months 7.3 (2.1) n = 206 7.7 (2.3) n = 211 0.23 (−0.11–0.57) 0.189
Knee extension strength, right leg, kga
 Baseline 16.1 (7.7) n = 307 14.6 (6.7) n = 309   
 3 months 17.4 (7.5) n = 244 16.5 (6.6) n = 239 −0.55 (−1.72–0.63) 0.361
 6 months 17.6 (7.8) n = 207 16.2 (7.6) n = 211 −0.60 (−1.86–0.65) 0.344
Knee extension strength, left leg, kga
 Baseline 15.4 (7.4) n = 305 14.1 (6.8) n = 309   
 3 months 16.9 (7.1) n = 240 15.8 (7.0) n = 239 −0.85 (−2.04–0.34) 0.160
 6 months 16.6 (7.1) n = 206 15.2 (6.6) n = 212 −1.05 (−2.20–0.10) 0.072
  1. aHigher scores reflect better performance
  2. bLower scores reflect better performance
  3. cSkewed distribution
  4. dSelf-report measure using the Incidental and Planned Exercise Questionnaire (IPEQ)
  5. *Significant outcome