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Table 3 Bidirectional associations among the SARC-F score, handgrip strength, HK-MoCA score and cognitive impairment in multivariable analyses

From: Handgrip strength but not SARC-F score predicts cognitive impairment in older adults with multimorbidity in primary care: a cohort study

Explanatory variable Dependent variable
SARC-F§ Handgrip strength|| HK-MoCA†† Cognitive impairment‡‡
  Coefficient Coefficient Coefficient Odds ratio
Baseline
 Baseline
  SARC-F    -0.14** (− 0.23, − 0.04) 1.37* (1.03, 1.84)
  Handgrip strength    0.25*** 0.14, 0.36) 0.38*** (0.22, 0.62)
  HK-MoCA − 0.13** (− 0.22, − 0.04) 0.16*** (0.09, 0.23)   
  Cognitive impairment 0.38** (0.10, 0.66) − 0.42*** (− 0.64, − 0.20)   
  Coefficient Coefficient Coefficient Hazard ratio
1-year follow-up
 Baseline
  SARC-F    −0.01 (− 0.09, 0.06) 0.96 (0.79, 1.17)
  Handgrip strength    0.08 (−0.01, 0.17) 0.48*** (0.33, 0.69)
  HK-MoCA 0.04 (−0.04, 0.13) 0.01 (−0.05, 0.06)   
  Cognitive impairment −0.18 (− 0.44, 0.07) −0.07 (− 0.23, 0.09)   
1-year follow-up
 SARC-F    −0.15*** (− 0.21, − 0.08) 1.27* (1.05, 1.53)
 Handgrip strength    0.12* (0.03, 0.21) 0.61** (0.43, 0.86)
 HK-MoCA −0.13** (− 0.21, − 0.05) 0.05 (0.00, 0.10)   
 Cognitive impairment 0.24* (0.03, 0.45) −0.08 (− 0.22, 0.05)   
  1. Coefficients, odds ratios, and hazard ratios were standardised (except for dichotomous variables) with 95% CI in parentheses. Each coefficient denotes a separate regression model
  2. Adjusted for the baseline values of age groups, sex, number of chronic diseases, and years of education
  3. Adjusted for the baseline values of age groups, sex, number of chronic diseases, years of education, and dependent variable
  4. §Score range 0–10
  5. ||Maximum strength 90 kg
  6. ††Score range 0–30
  7. ‡‡HK-MoCA score < 22
  8. *p < 0.05
  9. **p < 0.01
  10. ***p < 0.001