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Table 2 Subgroup characteristics of those with impaired cognitive function in the 2016 and 2019 surveys

From: Promoting cultural change towards dementia friendly communities: a multi-level intervention in Japan

  Male Female
  Pre_2016 (n = 88) Post_2019 (n = 125)   Pre_2016 (n = 97) Post_2019 (n = 192)  
  n/mean %/SD n/mean %/SD pa n/mean %/SD n/mean %/SD pa
Age in years 79.5 (5.5) 80.0 (5.6) 0.52 83.4 (7.2) 82.7 (6.0) 0.34
Married 62 (71.3%) 77 (65.8%) 0.45 35 (37.2%) 58 (32.2%) 0.42
Living alone 21 (24.4%) 36 (29.8%) 0.43 34 (35.8%) 96 (52.2%) 0.011
Years of residence 25.8 (16.6) 29.3 (17.6) 0.16 22.7 (15.4) 25.1 (15.6) 0.23
Being employed 5 (5.8%) 15 (12.2%) 0.15 0 (0.0%) 3 (1.6%) 0.55
Household income ≥3 million yen 9 (13.4%) 20 (18.9%) 0.41 4 (5.5%) 14 (9.1%) 0.44
Not depressed (5-item GDS < 2) 14 (20.0%) 23 (21.9%) 0.85 12 (15.2%) 49 (28.7%) 0.026
Number of comorbidities, none 4 (4.5%) 2 (1.7%) 0.030 8 (8.3%) 5 (2.6%) 0.14
 1 comorbidity 15 (17.0%) 16 (13.2%)   16 (16.7%) 37 (19.4%)  
 2 comorbidities 14 (15.9%) 33 (27.3%)   25 (26.0%) 38 (19.9%)  
 3 comorbidities 27 (30.7%) 20 (16.5%)   13 (13.5%) 30 (15.7%)  
 ≥4 comorbidities 28 (31.8%) 50 (41.3%)   34 (35.4%) 81 (42.4%)  
Number of impaired IADL items, none 4 (4.5%) 14 (11.2%) < 0.001 7 (7.2%) 14 (7.3%) < 0.001
 1 item impaired 18 (20.5%) 13 (10.4%)   27 (27.8%) 19 (9.9%)  
 2 items impaired 64 (72.7%) 30 (24.0%)   61 (62.9%) 38 (19.8%)  
 3-5 items impaired 2 (2.3%) 68 (54.4%)   2 (2.1%) 121 (63.0%)  
  1. SD Standard deviation, GDS Geriatric depression scale, IADL Instrumental activities of daily living
  2. aChi-square test or two sample t-test