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Table 1 Basic characteristics of the entire respondents in the 2016 and 2019 surveys

From: Promoting cultural change towards dementia friendly communities: a multi-level intervention in Japan

  Male Female
  Pre_2016 (n = 1091) Post_2019 (n = 1091)   Pre_2016 (n = 1542) Post_2019 (n = 1605)  
  n/mean %/SD n/mean %/SD pa n/mean %/SD n/mean %/SD pa
Age in years 76.7 (4.8) 77.0 (5.2) 0.20 77.9 (5.5) 77.8 (5.6) 0.38
Married 694 (64.7%) 636 (61.3%) 0.11 553 (36.5%) 557 (36.7%) 0.91
Living alone 380 (35.3%) 410 (38.5%) 0.14 822 (53.8%) 842 (54.7%) 0.66
Years of residence 28.6 (15.7) 28.7 (17.1) 0.86 26.6 (15.5) 28.8 (16.4) < 0.001
Being employed 321 (30.1%) 332 (31.1%) 0.64 184 (12.2%) 257 (16.4%) < 0.001
Household income ≥3 million yen 233 (24.3%) 241 (23.7%) 0.79 170 (13.6%) 190 (13.8%) 0.91
Intact cognitive function 996 (91.9%) 947 (88.3%) 0.0060 1433 (93.7%) 1395 (87.9%) < 0.001
Not depressed (5-item GDS < 2) 569 (56.4%) 548 (56.1%) 0.89 810 (57.7%) 869 (58.8%) 0.57
Number of comorbidities, none 109 (10.1%) 72 (6.7%) 0.011 174 (11.3%) 142 (9.0%) 0.12
 1 comorbidity 271 (25.0%) 242 (22.6%)   396 (25.8%) 381 (24.3%)  
 2 comorbidities 278 (25.6%) 271 (25.3%)   349 (22.7%) 390 (24.8%)  
 3 comorbidities 189 (17.4%) 215 (20.1%)   255 (16.6%) 260 (16.5%)  
 ≥4 comorbidities 237 (21.9%) 271 (25.3%)   361 (23.5%) 398 (25.3%)  
Number of impaired IADL items, none 538 (49.3%) 463 (42.4%) < 0.001 910 (59.0%) 942 (58.7%) < 0.001
 1 item impaired 305 (28.0%) 289 (26.5%)   361 (23.4%) 314 (19.6%)  
 2 items impaired 241 (22.1%) 289 (20.1%)   260 (16.9%) 180 (11.2%)  
 3-5 items impaired 7 (0.6%) 120 (11.0%)   11 (0.7%) 169 (10.5%)  
  1. SD Standard deviation GDS Geriatric depression scale, IADL Instrumental activities of daily living
  2. aChi-square test or two sample t-test