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Table 3 (i) Outcome assessment of CG and IG to both follow up measurements (t1 and t2)

From: Determine the impact of a structured pharmacist-led medication review - a controlled intervention study to optimise medication safety for residents in long-term care facilities

 

t1 compared to t0

t2 compared to t0

Outcomes:

No. of primary and secondary outcomes [n];

No. of affected NHRs [n(%)]

CG;

NHRs [n = 103]a

IG;

NHRs [n = 103]a

p value

CG;

NHRs [n = 95]a

IG;

NHRs [n = 96]a

p value

Primary outcome

 No. of total medication changes

118; 52 (50%)

250; 78 (76%)

<  0.001b

336; 81 (85%)

385; 87 (90%)

0.680

Secondary outcomes

Medication changes in subcategories

  No. of new drugs

46; 34 (33%)

43; 29 (28%)

0.450

120; 56 (59%)

85; 47 (49%)

0.218

  No. of discontinued drugs

36; 21 (20%)

93; 49 (48%)

<  0.001b

122; 53 (56%)

123; 57 (59%)

0.722

  No. of drugs with dose reduction

10; 9 (9%)

30; 25 (24%)

0.003b

24; 20 (21%)

43; 30 (31%)

0.196

  No. of drugs with dose increase

10; 8 (8%)

6; 6 (6%)

0.580

15; 12 (13%)

21; 15 (16%)

0.694

  No. of acute intermediate prescriptions (new and discontinued drugs)c

8; 7 (7%)

16; 10 (10%)

0.774

28; 22 (23%)

29; 19 (20%)

0.360

  No. of documentation changes in medication records

2; 2 (2%)

36; 26 (25%)

<  0.001b

5; 5 (5%)

44; 28 (29%)

<  0.001b

  No. of drugs changed to PRN medications

1; 1 (1%)

10; 10 (10%)

0.010b

2; 2 (2%)

13; 13 (14%)

0.005b

  No. of altered drug regime (timing, formulation or dosage interval)

1; 1 (1%)

8; 5 (5%)

0.211

5; 5 (5%)

14; 9 (9%)

0.267

  No. of other changes in the medication chartsd

4; 3 (3%)

8; 8 (8%)

0.065

15; 13 (14%)

13; 11 (11%)

0.817

Other secondary outcomes

t1

  

t2

  

  No. of chronic medications, median (Q25/Q75; Min-Max)

8 (6/10; 2–19)

7 (5/10; 2–16)

0.138

9 (7/11; 2–21)

7 (5/10; 2–19)

0.005b

  No. of falls

17; 13 (13%)

20; 20 (19%)

0.128

59; 33 (35%)

59; 39 (41%)

0.376

  No. of hospital admissions

14; 13 (13%)

16; 16 (16%)

0.548

36; 29 (31%)

38; 31 (32%)

0.783

  No. of deaths

1 (1%)

3 (3%)

0.621

8 (8%)

10 (10%)

0.668

  1. Abbreviations: Q25 first quartile, Q75 third quartile, CG control group, IG intervention group, Min minimum, Max maximum, NHR nursing home resident, PRN pro re nata
  2. a Percentages of residents refer to the respective total number of residents at t1 or t2
  3. b p ≤ 0.05
  4. c Medications that were newly started and then discontinued (e.g., antibiotics needed in acute cases)
  5. d Other changes in the medication charts regarding changes that are not covered by the other categories (e.g., switch PRN medication to chronic medication)