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Table 3 (i) Outcome assessment of CG and IG to both follow up measurements (t1 and t2)

From: Determine the impact of a structured pharmacist-led medication review - a controlled intervention study to optimise medication safety for residents in long-term care facilities

  t1 compared to t0 t2 compared to t0
Outcomes:
No. of primary and secondary outcomes [n];
No. of affected NHRs [n(%)]
CG;
NHRs [n = 103]a
IG;
NHRs [n = 103]a
p value CG;
NHRs [n = 95]a
IG;
NHRs [n = 96]a
p value
Primary outcome
 No. of total medication changes 118; 52 (50%) 250; 78 (76%) <  0.001b 336; 81 (85%) 385; 87 (90%) 0.680
Secondary outcomes
Medication changes in subcategories
  No. of new drugs 46; 34 (33%) 43; 29 (28%) 0.450 120; 56 (59%) 85; 47 (49%) 0.218
  No. of discontinued drugs 36; 21 (20%) 93; 49 (48%) <  0.001b 122; 53 (56%) 123; 57 (59%) 0.722
  No. of drugs with dose reduction 10; 9 (9%) 30; 25 (24%) 0.003b 24; 20 (21%) 43; 30 (31%) 0.196
  No. of drugs with dose increase 10; 8 (8%) 6; 6 (6%) 0.580 15; 12 (13%) 21; 15 (16%) 0.694
  No. of acute intermediate prescriptions (new and discontinued drugs)c 8; 7 (7%) 16; 10 (10%) 0.774 28; 22 (23%) 29; 19 (20%) 0.360
  No. of documentation changes in medication records 2; 2 (2%) 36; 26 (25%) <  0.001b 5; 5 (5%) 44; 28 (29%) <  0.001b
  No. of drugs changed to PRN medications 1; 1 (1%) 10; 10 (10%) 0.010b 2; 2 (2%) 13; 13 (14%) 0.005b
  No. of altered drug regime (timing, formulation or dosage interval) 1; 1 (1%) 8; 5 (5%) 0.211 5; 5 (5%) 14; 9 (9%) 0.267
  No. of other changes in the medication chartsd 4; 3 (3%) 8; 8 (8%) 0.065 15; 13 (14%) 13; 11 (11%) 0.817
Other secondary outcomes t1    t2   
  No. of chronic medications, median (Q25/Q75; Min-Max) 8 (6/10; 2–19) 7 (5/10; 2–16) 0.138 9 (7/11; 2–21) 7 (5/10; 2–19) 0.005b
  No. of falls 17; 13 (13%) 20; 20 (19%) 0.128 59; 33 (35%) 59; 39 (41%) 0.376
  No. of hospital admissions 14; 13 (13%) 16; 16 (16%) 0.548 36; 29 (31%) 38; 31 (32%) 0.783
  No. of deaths 1 (1%) 3 (3%) 0.621 8 (8%) 10 (10%) 0.668
  1. Abbreviations: Q25 first quartile, Q75 third quartile, CG control group, IG intervention group, Min minimum, Max maximum, NHR nursing home resident, PRN pro re nata
  2. a Percentages of residents refer to the respective total number of residents at t1 or t2
  3. b p ≤ 0.05
  4. c Medications that were newly started and then discontinued (e.g., antibiotics needed in acute cases)
  5. d Other changes in the medication charts regarding changes that are not covered by the other categories (e.g., switch PRN medication to chronic medication)