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Table 2 Characteristics of the study participants (N = 4593)

From: A study on the current state and equity level of social participation ability among older adults in Henan Province, China

Index older adults (person (%)) Scorea (\(\overline{x} \pm s\)) t/F P
Age (years)
 60 ≤ Age < 70 2466 (53.69) 93.66 ± 8.47 33.663  < 0.001
 70 ≤ Age < 80 1656 (36.05) 92.90 ± 8.98
Age >  = 80 471 (10.26) 89.99 ± 10.79
Sex
 Male 2348 (51.12) 93.51 ± 8.86 3.870  < 0.001
 Female 2245 (48.88) 92.49 ± 9.07
Residence
 Urban 1249 (27.19) 94.40 ± 8.43 6.681  < 0.001
 Rural 3344 (72.81) 92.49 ± 9.12
Educational level
 Illiteracy 1204 (26.21) 90.07 ± 9.77 66.656  < 0.001
 Primary school 1673 (36.42) 92.84 ± 9.12
 Junior high school 1031 (22.45) 94.61 ± 7.78
 High School/Technical School 538 (11.71) 95.77 ± 7.45
 College degree and above 147 (3.21) 97.63 ± 5.18
Pre-retirement occupationb
 Government staffs 799 (17.40) 95.19 ± 8.07 31.063  < 0.001
 Industry and service workers 748 (16.29) 94.12 ± 8.43
 Agricultural staffs 1920 (41.80) 91.86 ± 9.29
 Others 1126 (24.51) 92.68 ± 9.05
Income (Chinese Yuan/month)
 1000 and below 2452 (53.39) 92.16 ± 8.93 22.687  < 0.001
 1001–2000 1147 (24.97) 93.28 ± 9.43
 2001–3000 609 (13.26) 94.31 ± 8.63
 3001 and above 385 (8.38) 95.56 ± 7.56
Medical insurancec
 Basic Medical Insurance for Urban Employeesd 619 (13.48) 95.10 ± 8.37 21.665  < 0.001
 Basic Medical Insurance for Urban Residentse 663 (14.44) 94.27 ± 8.24
 New Rural Cooperative Medical Systemf 3156 (68.71) 92.39 ± 9.11
 Others 155 (3.37) 91.89 ± 9.83
  1. aScore: The score of the social participation ability among older adults (SPAOA) (0–100)
  2. bPre-retirement occupation: Occupations that older people mainly engaged in before retirement
  3. cMedical insurance: The main type of medical insurance that older adults possess
  4. dBasic Medical Insurance for Urban Employees: In China, it refers to basic medical insurance program mandated by law, in which all urban firms’ employees must enroll. The insurance premium shall be borne by both the employer and the employee
  5. eBasic Medical Insurance for Urban Residents: It is a kind of basic medical insurance for urban residents. Insurance premiums are mainly paid by individual residents (families), supplemented by appropriate government subsidies. fNew Rural Cooperative Medical System: It is a kind of basic medical insurance established for rural residents, which raises funds by means of individual payment, collective support and government funding