Skip to main content

Table 1 The meaning and assigned value of indicators

From: A study on the current state and equity level of social participation ability among older adults in Henan Province, China

Variable category First-level indicators Secondary indicators Meaning Assigned value
Outcome variables Daily living (Y1) eating (x 1) Refers to the process of using tableware to deliver food from the container to the mouth, chewing, and swallowing 0-10a
bathing (x 2) The whole process from preparing the bathwater to the completion of the bath 0-4b
grooming (x 3) Refers to washing face, brushing teeth, combing hair, shaving, etc 0–4
dressing (x 4) Refers to putting on and taking off clothes, buckling, zipping, putting on and taking off shoes and socks, and tying shoelaces 0–10
going to the toilet (x 5) Including going to the toilet, unbuttoning underwear, wiping, tidying up underwear, flushing 0–10
Perception ability (Y2) vision (x 6) The ability to see words and recognizing objects with their eyes (If the older adults wear reading glasses or myopia, the older adults should evaluate with glasses) 0–4
hearing (x 7) The ability to hear other people’s speech, TV, telephone, doorbell, et al. (If the older adults usually wear a hearing aid, the older adults should evaluate with the hearing aid) 0–4
communication ability (x 8) The ability to express one’s own needs and understand other people’s words, including non-verbal communication skills 0-2c
consciousness level (x 9) The state of mind, and the ability to be alert to the surrounding environment 0–2
Mental state (Y3) cognitive function (x 10) Perception and memory of things. Application test method: 1. I said three things, please repeat; 2. Clock drawing test: "Please draw a round clock here and mark 10:45 on the clock"; 3. Recall the words: "Now, please tell me, what are the three things I wanted you to remember just now?" 0–2
aggressive behavior (x 11) Physical aggressive behaviors (such as hitting/kicking/pushing/biting/grabbing/falling things) and verbal aggressive behaviors (such as swearing, verbal threats, screaming) 0–2
depressive symptoms (x 12) Manifestations of abnormal mood, abnormal activity, and suicidal behavior, etc 0–2
Functional independent variables SPAOAd (Y4) Working ability (x 13) Memory of the original skilled mental work or physical skill work 0–4
Time/space positioning (x 14) Perception of time concept and geographic name and location 0–4
Character positioning (x 15) Can you know the names and relationships with family and relatives and can you distinguish between acquaintances and strangers 0–4
Social communication ability (x 16) The ability to participate in society, adapt to the social environment, and deal with others 0–4
  1. a0 means that the older adults need great help or completely rely on others when completing the related behavior, 5 points indicate that the older adults partially need the help of others when completing the related behavior, and 10 indicate that the older adults can complete the related behavior independently
  2. b0 means the function or ability of older adults are impaired or very low, 4 means the function or ability of the older adults is normal
  3. c0 means behavior of older adults is severe, 2 means no related behavior. The higher the score, the better the ability/function/behavior of older adults
  4. dSPAOA: the social participation ability among older adults