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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants (N = 3,556)

From: Clinical factors associated with recent medical care visits in nursing homes: a multi-site cross-sectional study

Variable n (%)
Demographics
Age (Years) a 85 (10.8)
Sex (Female) 2,206 (62.6)
Cognition, mood, behaviour
Diagnosis
Alzheimer’s disease
Dementia other than Alzheimer’s disease b
Anxiety disorder or depression
551 (18.3)
1,939 (54.5)
887 (24.9)
Moderately or severely impaired cognitive skills for daily decision-making c 1,901 (53.5)
Deteriorated cognitive status d 197 (5.5)
Wandering behaviours exhibitede 1,085 (30.5)
Presence of ≥ 1 indicators of delirium c 2,542 (71.5)
Parenteral/IV or feeding tubec 64 (1.8)
Mood
   ≥ 1 indicators of depression, sadness, or anxiety c
  Deteriorated mood d
2,096 (58.9)
251 (7.1)
Falls, mobility, pressure ulcers
Fall occurred in last 180 days 1,619 (45.5)
Fractures
  Hip fracture occurred in last 180 days
  Other fracture occurred in last 180 days
71 (2.0)
73 (2.1)
Presence of ≥ 1 ulcers (Any stage) c 571 (16.1)
Hypotension 44 (1.5)
Pain management
Frequency (Daily or less than daily) c f 1,243 (35.0)
Intensity (Moderate, horrible, or excruciating) c f 2,888 (81.2)
Urinary
Incontinence
 Bladder g h
 Bowel g h
 Deteriorated urinary continenced
2,647 (74.4)
2,011 (56.6)
234 (6.6)
Urinary tract infection§§ 302 (8.5)
Ostomy present g 52 (1.5)
Urinary catheter present (External, indwelling, or intermittent) g 144 (4.05)
Clinical symptoms
Stability of conditions
 Acute episode or flare-up of recurrent or chronic problemc
 End-stage diseasee||
276 (7.8)
46 (1.3)
Chronic diseases
  Diabetes mellitus
  Congestive heart failure
  Hypertension
  Stroke
  COPD
  Cancer
885 (24.9)
347 (11.6)
1,951 (64.9)
763 (21.5)
401 (13.3)
403 (13.4)
Weight gain or loss of ≥ 1.5 kg (3 lbs.) c 20 (0.6)
Shortness of breath c 262 (7.4)
Medications
New medications initiated d 1,909 (63.5)
Number of medications a c 10 (5.0)
Received the following medications for ≥ 1 days c
  Psychoactive medication (Antipsychotic, antianxiety, antidepressant, or hypnotic)
  Diuretic
  Analgesic
2,436 (68.5)
1,010 (28.4)
2,170 (61.0)
Special treatments and procedures
Past hospital use d
   ≥ 1 admissions with an overnight stay
   ≥ 1 ED visits
839 (23.6)
863 (24.3)
  1. IV Intravenous Therapy, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ED Emergency Department
  2. a Reported as median (Interquartile range)
  3. b Includes diagnoses of organic brain syndrome or chronic brain syndrome, senility, senile dementia, multi-infarct dementia, and dementia related to neurologic diseases other than Alzheimer’s (e.g., Picks, Creutzfeld-Jacob, Huntington’s disease, etc.)
  4. c Observation period: last 7 days
  5. d Observation period: last 90 days
  6. e Behaviour exhibited at any frequency in the last 7 days (e.g., 1 to 3 days, 4 to 6 days, or daily)
  7. f Any type of physical pain or discomfort in any part of the body. Pain may be localized to one area, or may be more generalized. It may be acute or chronic, continuous, or intermittent, or occur at rest or with movement
  8. g Observation period: last 14 days
  9. h Incontinent episodes occurring once a week or less (bladder) or less than weekly (bowel), occasionally incontinent, frequently incontinent, or having inadequate control
  10. §§ Observation period: last 30 days
  11. || Six months or less to live