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Table 4 Univariate analysis of health behaviour scores

From: Health behaviour and its determinants in elderly patients with chronic diseases: evidence from Jiangsu Province, China

Variable N Score Nutrition Tobacco and alcohol use Physical activity Stress management Health responsibility Spiritual growth
Panel A
  Urban 441 77.12\(\pm\)9.15 19.73\(\pm\)2.05 6.18\(\pm\)1.16 8.85\(\pm\)2.13 15.38\(\pm\)2.07 14.90\(\pm\)2.74 12.08\(\pm\)2.33
  Rural 350 76.23\(\pm\)6.43 19.95\(\pm\)2.15 6.16\(\pm\)0.91 7.88\(\pm\)1.02 14.61\(\pm\)1.53 15.64\(\pm\)2.02 11.99\(\pm\)1.83
  t value   0.41 1.43 -0.29 0.71 1.73 1.80 0.94
  P value   0.586 0.197 0.641 0.484 0.069 0.071 0.349
  Southern 308 77.18\(\pm\)8.74 19.84\(\pm\)1.62 6.18\(\pm\)0.94 8.61\(\pm\)1.15 15.17\(\pm\)1.52 15.29\(\pm\)1.30 12.09\(\pm\)2.71
  Central 237 76.01\(\pm\)6.14 19.79\(\pm\)1.58 6.19\(\pm\)0.97 8.42\(\pm\)0.93 14.90\(\pm\)2.32 14.75\(\pm\)2.52 11.96\(\pm\)1.44
  Northern 246 76.86\(\pm\)6.58 19.85\(\pm\)2.31 6.14\(\pm\)1.06 8.18\(\pm\)2.03 15.01\(\pm\)2.06 15.61\(\pm\)2.92 12.06\(\pm\)2.01
  F value   2.28 1.74 2.31 2.15 2.23 1.31 7.62
  P value   0.080 0.126 0.074 0.090 0.083 0.269  < 0.001
Panel B
  Lower-middle income level 57 71.73\(\pm\)10.43 19.79\(\pm\)2.16 7.66\(\pm\)1.91 7.12\(\pm\)0.93 12.60\(\pm\)2.44 14.76\(\pm\)2.13 9.79\(\pm\)1.82
  Middle income level 421 76.08\(\pm\)8.15 19.81\(\pm\)2.01 7.16\(\pm\)0.92 7.92\(\pm\)1.02 14.80\(\pm\)1.69 14.93\(\pm\)1.48 11.46\(\pm\)2.60
  Upper-middle income level 313 78.51\(\pm\)6.97 19.86\(\pm\)1.95 4.57\(\pm\)0.86 8.82\(\pm\)1.13 15.81\(\pm\)2.01 16.43\(\pm\)0.92 13.01\(\pm\)2.11
  F value   7.68 2.75 1.65 6.13 5.80 5.47 11.84
  P value    < 0.001 0.061 0.159  < 0.001 0.001 0.004  < 0.001
  Male 359 76.47\(\pm\)10.12 19.66\(\pm\)2.85 5.99\(\pm\)1.02 8.51\(\pm\)0.93 15.25\(\pm\)2.13 15.12\(\pm\)2.70 11.94
  Female 432 76.95\(\pm\)6.03 19.97\(\pm\)1.59 6.32\(\pm\)0.96 8.35\(\pm\)1.43 14.87\(\pm\)2.01 15.32\(\pm\)1.63 12.12
  t value   -2.17 -2.09 3.91 0.40 4.18 1.90 -0.11
  P value   0.031 0.042  < 0.001 0.572  < 0.001 0.064 0.902
  Aged 60–80 669 78.43\(\pm\)6.18 19.99\(\pm\)1.69 6.17\(\pm\)0.93 8.62\(\pm\)1.13 15.08\(\pm\)2.32 16.51 12.06\(\pm\)2.15
  Aged 80 and above 122 67.41\(\pm\)11.03 18.95\(\pm\)2.15 6.18\(\pm\)1.03 7.32\(\pm\)0.97 14.82\(\pm\)1.97 8.21 11.93\(\pm\)1.61
  t value   3.87 3.51 0.81 2.97 4.21 7.38 4.45
  P value    < 0.001  < 0.001 0.413 0.002  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
Panel C
  Married 504 79.87\(\pm\)9.05 19.95\(\pm\)1.89 6.19\(\pm\)0.87 8.49\(\pm\)1.01 15.45\(\pm\)1.31 15.71\(\pm\)2.78 14.07\(\pm\)2.29
  Single/divorced/widowed 287 71.21\(\pm\)5.43 19.62\(\pm\)2.39 6.13\(\pm\)1.03 8.30\(\pm\)1.13 14.32\(\pm\)2.45 14.39\(\pm\)1.92 8.45\(\pm\)1.83
  t value   4.37 7.72 1.51 1.44 5.13 6.02 7.08
  P value    < 0.001  < 0.001 0.101 0.120  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
  Lives with other(s) 560 75.91\(\pm\)8.12 19.81\(\pm\)1.69 6.18\(\pm\)0.92 8.22\(\pm\)1.24 14.87 15.18 11.65
  Lives alone 231 78.73\(\pm\)8.73 19.89\(\pm\)2.09 6.15\(\pm\)1.31 8.91\(\pm\)0.93 15.45 15.35 12.98
  t value   4.06 -1.94 0.89 3.85 4.81 3.95 5.74
  P value    < 0.001 0.051 0.340 0.003  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
Panel D
  Junior secondary school and below 326 74.23\(\pm\)8.06 19.76\(\pm\)2.19 6.16\(\pm\)1.23 8.30\(\pm\)1.93 15.01\(\pm\)3.51 14.44\(\pm\)2.83 10.55\(\pm\)1.93
  High school 376 77.83\(\pm\)5.13 19.86\(\pm\)1.99 6.17\(\pm\)0.81 8.47\(\pm\)0.98 14.93\(\pm\)1.23 15.54\(\pm\)2.47 12.86\(\pm\)2.03
  Bachelor’s degree and above 89 81.24\(\pm\)11.24 19.96\(\pm\)1.71 6.19\(\pm\)1.02 8.65\(\pm\)1.01 15.61\(\pm\)1.94 16.81\(\pm\)1.63 14.02\(\pm\)0.63
  F value   7.85 8.17 2.81 4.20 2.41 9.91 19.34
  P value    < 0.001  < 0.001 0.060 0.006 0.081  < 0.001  < 0.001
Panel E
  Cardio-cerebrovascular disease 576 76.81\(\pm\)9.87 19.84\(\pm\)2.09 6.19\(\pm\)1.14 8.48\(\pm\)1.01 14.75\(\pm\)1.43 16.23\(\pm\)2.93 11.32\(\pm\)1.93
  Metabolic disorder 183 77.19\(\pm\)5.76 19.81\(\pm\)1.84 6.11\(\pm\)1.01 8.60\(\pm\)0.73 16.48\(\pm\)2.43 11.30\(\pm\)1.81 14.89\(\pm\)2.03
  Respiratory disease 63 75.06\(\pm\)5.22 19.79\(\pm\)2.79 6.11\(\pm\)1.01 7.48\(\pm\)0.93 14.20\(\pm\)1.88 15.01\(\pm\)2.01 12.47\(\pm\)2.28
  Cancer 9 75.92\(\pm\)6.13 19.82\(\pm\)1.98 6.29\(\pm\)0.84 8.29\(\pm\)0.94 16.45\(\pm\)2.71 15.21\(\pm\)1.93 9.85\(\pm\)2.13
  F value   1.84 1.91 3.14 0.87 1.24 2.25 2.91
  P value   0.137 0.164 0.007 0.546 0.301 0.081 0.057