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Table 4 Multiple logistic regression analyses for factors associated with unfavorable self-rated happiness and mental component summary stratified by volunteer participation

From: Volunteer participation differentially moderates the association between insomnia and poor subjective well-being in community-dwelling older adults: the Yilan study, Taiwan

  Self-rated Happiness Short Form-12 Mental component summary
Volunteer Volunteer
Yes No Yes No
AOR (95% CI) p-value AOR (95% CI) p-value AOR (95% CI) p-value AOR (95% CI) p-value
Age (≥ 75 vs. < 75 years) 0.70 (0.38–1.28) 0.25 0.93 (0.76–1.13) 0.47 1.12 (0.59–2.11) 0.73 0.91 (0.73–1.13) 0.40
Sex (male vs. female) 1.51 (0.67–3.41) 0.32 1.28 (0.98–1.66) 0.07 2.28 (0.98–5.30) 0.06 1.29 (0.95–1.73) 0.10
Body mass index (kg/m2)
  < 18.5 vs. 18.5–23.9 1.40 (0.22–8.95) 0.72 1.22 (0.76–1.96) 0.42 0.84 (0.14–4.94) 0.84 1.22 (0.73–2.03) 0.46
  > 23.9 vs. 18.5–23.9 0.55 (0.31–1.00) 0.049 0.98 (0.81–1.19) 0.85 0.74 (0.39–1.40) 0.36 0.87 (0.70–1.09) 0.22
 Disabled vs. 18.5–23.9 NAa 0.99 1.28 (0.81–2.02) 0.29 NAa 0.99 2.19 (1.40–3.43) 0.001
 Education status (illiterate vs. literate) 1.31 (0.55–3.11) 0.55 1.77 (1.41–2.23)  < 0.001 0.43 (0.15–1.20) 0.11 0.91 (0.71–1.16) 0.45
Marital status
 Single/ divorced/ separated vs. Married 10.16 (0.68–15.58) 0.09 1.40 (0.64–3.06) 0.40 0.41 (0.01–13.97) 0.62 1.11 (0.50–2.47) 0.81
 Widowed vs. Married 1.80 (0.89–3.67) 0.40 1.21 (0.98–1.50) 0.08 0.97 (0.44–2.10) 0.93 0.98 (0.78–1.25) 0.89
 Living status (alone vs. with others) 1.19 (0.51–2.76) 0.69 1.04 (0.77–1.42) 0.79 0.69 (0.28–1.69) 0.41 1.06 (0.75–1.51) 0.73
 Frequency of exercise per week (≥ 3 vs. < 3 / week) 1.26 (0.66–2.43) 0.49 1.33 (1.10–1.60) 0.003 0.88 (0.42–1.84) 0.73 1.16 (0.94–1.43) 0.16
Smoking status
 Ex- smoker vs. Non-smoker 0.83 (0.32–2.17) 0.71 1.55 (1.13–2.13) 0.01 0.26 (0.09–0.75) 0.01 0.91 (0.63–1.31) 0.62
 Current smoker vs. Non-smoker 1.35 (0.45–1.02) 0.59 1.38 (0.96–1.97) 0.08 0.29 (0.08–1.07) 0.06 0.92 (0.60–1.39) 0.68
Drinking status
 Ex- drinker vs. Non-drinker 0.78 (0.19–3.27) 0.74 1.02 (0.66–1.58) 0.94 0.28 (0.04–2.01) 0.21 0.39 (0.22–0.67) 0.001
 Current drinker vs. Non-drinker 0.89 (0.40–1.98) 0.78 0.72 (0.54–0.97) 0.03 0.66 (0.27–1.59) 0.35 0.59 (0.42–0.85) 0.004
Medical history
 Diabetes mellitus (yes vs. no) 1.02 (0.49–2.08) 0.97 0.98 (0.79–1.21) 0.83 1.78 (0.83–3.82) 0.14 1.16 (0.91–1.48) 0.22
 Hypertension (yes vs. no) 1.97 (1.03–3.76) 0.04 1.19 (0.98–1.45) 0.08 0.80 (0.41–1.55) 0.50 0.95 (0.77–1.19) 0.68
 Cardiovascular disease (yes vs. no) 1.14 (0.61–2.16) 0.68 0.98 (0.80–1.20) 0.85 0.39 (0.19–0.82) 0.01 0.94 (0.75–1.17) 0.56
 Hyperlipidemia (yes vs. no) 0.56 (0.28–1.14) 0.11 1.22 (0.97–1.54) 0.09 0.94 (0.45–1.93) 0.86 0.94 (0.72–1.21) 0.60
 Stroke (yes vs. no) 0.45 (0.02–11.25) 0.63 1.01 (0.66–1.56) 0.96 NAa 0.99 1.16 (0.74–1.82) 0.52
 Snore (yes vs. no) NAa 0.99 0.98 (0.72–2.30) 0.96 2.18 (0.19–24.94) 0.53 0.43 (0.12–1.50) 0.18
Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale
 Depression (≥ 6 vs. < 6) 1.10 (0.27–4.52) 0.89 2.35 (1.60–3.46)  < 0.001 5.74 (1.04–31.73) 0.045 5.86 (4.01–8.58)  < 0.001
 Anxiety (≥ 3 vs. < 3) 2.26 (1.21–4.24) 0.01 2.21 (1.80–2.72)  < 0.001 4.14 (2.16–7.96)  < 0.001 3.22 (2.60–3.98)  < 0.001
 Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (≥ 19 vs. < 19) 2.11 (1.13–3.92) 0.02 1.86 (1.53–2.26)  < 0.001 1.83 (0.93–3.60) 0.08 1.63 (1.31–2.02)  < 0.001
 Taking hypnotics in the past one month (yes vs. no) 2.46 (1.25–4.85) 0.01 1.48 (1.19–1.86) 0.001 1.88 (0.91–3.91) 0.09 1.79 (1.42–2.25)  < 0.001
 Epworth Sleepiness Scale (≥ 11 vs. < 11) 0.89 (0.34–2.31) 0.81 0.98 (0.73–1.31) 0.90 2.80 (1.10–7.16) 0.03 1.88 (1.39–2.54)  < 0.001
Athens Insomnia Scale (≥ 5 vs. < 5) 3.91 (1.85–8.28)  < 0.001 1.48 (1.18–1.86) 0.001 0.64 (0.27–1.50) 0.30 1.53 (1.21–1.94)  < 0.001
  1. aOdds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were not available due to sparse cases
  2. AOR adjusted odds ratio