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Table 2 Univariate and multivariable logistic regression for the risk factors of ADRs among hospitalized older adults, MRRH, Uganda

From: Predictors of hospital-acquired adverse drug reactions: a cohort of Ugandan older adults

Exposure variables COR (95% C.I) P value AOR (95% C.I) P value
Variables Categories
Gender Female 1.43 (1.02–2.02) .041 1.39 (0.61–1.71) 0.932
Male 1.00   1.00  
Age in years 60–75 1.27 (0.88–1.84) 0.206 1.97 (1.14–3.41) 0.015
> = 75 1.00   1.00  
Ward Medical 1.00   1.00  
Surgery 0.56 (0.38–0.83) 0.004 0.64 (0.35–1.19) 0.158
Oncology 1.09 (0.68–1.73) 0.729 1.40 (0.59–3.33) 0.442
Type of admission Not Emergency 1.00   1.00  
Emergency 1.50 (1.05–2.15) 0.025 1.36 (0.66–2.79) 0.400
Previous admission in 3 months* No 1.00   * *
Yes 0.87 (0.61–1.23) 0.420 * *
Previous ADR in 1 year No 1.00   1.00  
Yes 3.12 (2.10–4.66) < 0.001 2.43 (1.42–4.17) 0.001
Allergy history No 1.00   1.00  
Yes 2.51 (1.24–5.06) 0.010 1.15 (0.40–3.27) 0.800
Medication use in previous 3 months* No 1.00   * *
Yes 1.00 (0.55–1.80) 0.996 * *
Previous use of an herbal drug in 4 weeks* No 1.00   * *
Yes 0.88 (0.63–1.24) 0.469 * *
PIMa No 1.00   1.00  
Yes 7.45 (5.02–11.06) < 0.001 4.56 (2.70–7.70) < 0.001
Polypharmacy No 1.00   1.00  
Yes 9.40 (6.30–14.04) < 0.001 3.29 (1.98–5.46) < 0.001
Clinically significant DDIb No 1.00   1.00  
Yes 3.28 (2.28–4.71) < 0.001 0.68 (0.37–1.23) 0.201
CCIc <=5 1.00   1.00  
> = 6 10.69 (6.89–16.58) < 0.001 8.47 (4.85–14.99) < 0.001
Kidney disease No 1.00   1.00  
Yes 3.17 (2.03–4.95) < 0.001 1.95 (1.05–3.61) 0.034
Liver disease No 1.00   1.00  
Yes 3.34 (1.97–5.63) < 0.001 1.96 (0.95–4.05) 0.70
Heart failure No 1.00   1.00  
Yes 3.30 (1.91–5.70) < 0.001 2.83 (1.34–6.02) 0.007
Diabetes* No 1.00   * *
Yes 1.26 (0.74–2.13) 0.396 * *
Cancer No 1.00   1.00  
Yes 1.31 (0.91–1.87) 0.146 0.88 (0.42–1.84) 0.730
Hospital stay (days) <=5 1.00   1.00  
5–10 1.35 (0.89–2.05) 0.156 1.64 (0.90–3.00) 0.106
> = 11 2.76 (1.77–4.29) < 0.001 3.53 (1.89–6.61) < 0.001
  1. C.I Confidence Interval, COR Crude Odds Ratio, AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio
  2. aPIM Potentially inappropriate medication
  3. bDDI Drug-drug interaction
  4. cCCI Charlison Comorbidity inde
  5. *Excluded from multivariable logistic regression at univariate level; Bold: Statistically significant