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Table 1 Univariate analysis for patient, disease, and drug characteristics of older adults admitted at MRRH, southwestern Uganda from November 2020 to May 2021

From: Predictors of hospital-acquired adverse drug reactions: a cohort of Ugandan older adults

Exposures Frequency (%) (N = 523) Outcome
Variable Categories ‘No ADR’ Frequency (%) ADR Frequency (%)
Gender Female 254 (48.6) 118 (46.5) 136 (53.5)
Male 269 (51.4) 149 (55.4) 120 (44.6)
Age in years; median (Interquartile Range) = 67 (62–76) 60–75 356 (68.1) 175 (49.2) 181 (50.8)
> = 75 167 (31.9) 92 (55.1) 75 (44.9)
Ward of admission Medical 262 (50.1) 123 (46.9) 139 (53.1)
Surgery 163 (31.2) 100 (61.3) 63 (38.7)
Oncology 98 (18.7) 44 (44.9) 54 (55.1)
Type of admission Not Emergency 197 (37.7) 113 (57.4) 84 (42.6)
Emergency 326 (62.3) 154 (47.2) 172 (52.8)
Previous admission (3 months) No 293 (56.0) 145 (49.5) 148 (50.5)
Yes 230 (44.0) 122 (53.0) 108 (47.0)
Previous ADR in 1 year No 371 (70.9) 219 (59.0) 152 (41.0)
Yes 152 (29.1) 48 (31.6) 104 (68.4)
Allergy history No 482 (92.5) 254 (52.7) 228 (47.3)
Yes 39 (7.5) 12 (30.8) 27 (69.2)
Medication use in previous 3 months No 49 (9.4) 25 (51.0) 24 (49.0)
Yes 474 (90.6) 242 (51.1) 232 (48.9)
Previous use of the herbal drug in 4 weeks No 251 (48.0) 124 (49.4) 127 (50.6)
Yes 272 (52.0) 143 (52.6) 129 (47.4)
PIMa No 304 (58.1) 214 (70.6) 90 (29.6)
Yes 219 (41.9) 53 (24.2) 166 (75.8)
Polypharmacyb No 245 (46.8) 191 (78.0) 54 (22.0)
Yes 278 (53.2) 76 (27.3) 202 (72.7)
Clinically significant DDIc No 300 (57.4) 190 (63.3) 110 (36.7)
Yes 223 (42.6) 77 (34.5) 146 (65.5)
Comorbidity No 185 (35.4) 135 (73.0) 50 (27.0)
Yes 338 (64.6) 132 (39.1) 206 (60.9)
CCI categoryd <=5 333 (63.7) 240 (72.1) 93 (27.9)
> = 6 190 (36.3) 27 (14.2) 163 (85.8)
Kidney diseasee No 408 (78.0) 233 (57.1) 175 (42.9)
Yes 115 (22.0) 34 (29.6) 81 (70.4)
Liver disease No 442 (84.5) 245 (55.4) 197 (44.6)
Yes 81 (15.5) 22 (27.2) 59 (72.8)
Heart failure No 449 (85.9) 247 (55.0) 202 (45.0)
Yes 74 (14.1) 20 (27.0) 54 (73.0)
Diabetes No 460 (88.0) 238 (51.7) 222 (48.3)
Yes 63 (12.0) 29 (46.0) 34 (54.0)
Cancer No 339 (64.8) 181 (53.4) 158 (46.6)
Yes 184 (35.2) 86 (46.7) 98 (53.3)
Length of Hospital stay <=5 180 (34.4) 110 (61.1) 70 (38.9)
5–10 186 (35.6) 100 (53.8) 86 (46.2)
> = 11 157 (30.0) 57 (36.3) 100 (63.7)
  1. ADR Adverse drug reaction
  2. aPIM Potentially inappropriate medication using 2020 Beer’s criteria
  3. bPolypharmacy: The use of five or more different active ingredients of medicines
  4. cDDI: Clinically significant drug-drug interaction using Lexi Comp
  5. dCCI: Charlison Comorbidity index for 10 years survival
  6. eKidney disease: any documented structural renal condition or eGFR< 90 mL/min/1.73m2