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Table 2 Standardized mean difference of controlled covariates before and after matching

From: The impact of having foreign domestic workers on informal caregivers of persons with dementia – findings from a multi-method research in Singapore

Variables Pre-matched data Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Std. Mean Diff Std. Mean Diff Std. Mean Diff Std. Mean Diff
Age -0.016 -0.031 -0.030 -0.049
Gender
 Male 0.080 0.092 0.046 0.093
 Female -0.080 -0.092 -0.046 -0.093
Ethnicity
 Chinese -0.076 0.021 -0.115 -0.081
 Malay 0.017 -0.053 0.066 0.044
 Indian & others 0.090 0.030 0.089 0.066
Education level
 Secondary or below (include N/O level) -0.128 -0.167 -0.117 -0.115
 A level, polytechnic, and other diploma 0.251 0.191 0.217 0.091
 Degree or above -0.122 -0.018 -0.099 0.030
Marital status
 Single 0.111 0.053 0.088 0.032
 Married, divorced & widowed -0.111 -0.053 -0.088 -0.032
Monthly household income
  < SGD5,999 -0.003 -0.016 0.049 0.075
 SGD6,000 or above 0.036 0.069 -0.009 -0.007
 NA/DK -0.042 -0.068 -0.056 -0.094
Relationship to the PWD
 Spouse -0.270 -0.212 -0.198 -0.042
 Son 0.076 0.021 0.052 0.044
 Daughter -0.001 0.000 0.000 0.034
 Others 0.149 0.158 0.113 -0.057
No. of PWD’s ADL 0.716 0.482 0.550 -0.076
No. of PWD’s IADL 1.188 0.495 0.963 -0.114
PWD’s memory and behaviour problems -0.189 -0.150 -0.185 -0.033
  1. Model 1 = 1:1 nearest matching, model = 2:1 optimal matching, and model 3 = full matching