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Table 1 Sample characteristics by gender groups

From: Associations between new health conditions and healthcare service utilizations among older adults in the United Kingdom: effects of COVID-19 risks, worse financial situation, and lowered income

  Wave 1 Wave 2
Female % Male % Chi square Female % Male % Chi square
Age (N1 = 6952; N2 = 6710)    13.6175***    23.1389***
 50–64 18.74 12.89   18.30 12.01  
 65–84 34.11 28.39   34.55 29.45  
  ≥ 85 3.41 2.46   3.26 2.43  
Region (N1 = 6947; N2 = 6695)    1.0978    1.1421
 Urban 41.08 31.45   41.00 31.61  
 Rural 15.17 12.29   15.07 12.32  
Long-standing condition (N1 = 6951; N2 = 6705)    0.2008    1.5761
 No 26.59 20.43   32.33 24.62  
 Yes 29.68 23.31   23.77 19.27  
COVID-19 risks (N1 = 6952; N2 = 6710)    0.8526    0.4526
 No 46.16 36.26   42.41 33.49  
 Yes 10.10 7.48   13.70 10.40  
New health conditions (N1 = 6952; N2 = 6396)    0.8212    0.3729
 No 44.85 35.26   45.34 35.57  
 Yes 11.41 8.49   10.88 8.21  
Worse financial situation (N1 = 6946; N2 = 6701)    18.2710***    12.7434***
 No 46.86 34.70   47.52 35.77  
 Yes 9.39 9.06   8.57 8.15  
Lowered income (N1 = 6930; N2 = 6698)    6.6318**    6.5161**
 No 47.42 35.97   48.69 37.22  
 Yes 8.76 7.85   7.36 6.73  
Treatment cancellation (N1 = 6950; N2 = 3101)    6.4741**    0.0839
 No 46.01 36.79   42.28 34.05  
 Yes 10.24 6.95   13.25 10.42  
Accessible care (N1 = 1907; N2 = 3409)    5.3031**    2.6850
 No 33.04 28.00   12.88 10.38  
 Yes 23.18 15.78   45.00 31.74  
  1. ** and *** denote significance at 5, and 1% levels, respectively