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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of Participants by Life Stage at the Time of Famine Exposure in CHARLS

From: Early-life exposure to Chinese famine and stroke risk in mid- to late life: the mediating roles of cognitive function and depression

  Unexposed 1963–1966 (N = 1968) Fetally exposed 1959–1962 (N = 1575) Childhood-exposed 1949–1958 (N = 5129) Adolescence/adulthood-exposed 1921–1948 (N = 4009) P value
Childhood covariates, n (%)
Childhood economic status     0.153
 Good 192 (9.76) 150 (9.52) 416 (8.11) 359 (8.95)  
 Fair 1021 (51.88) 818 (51.94) 2616 (51.00) 2047 (51.06)  
 Poor 755 (38.36) 607 (38.54) 2097 (40.89) 1603 (39.99)  
Childhood health status      0.248
 Good 678 (34.45) 565 (35.87) 1815 (35.39) 1372 (34.22)  
 Fair 1041 (52.90) 831 (52.76) 2619 (51.06) 2118 (52.83)  
 Poor 249 (12.65) 179 (11.37) 695 (13.55) 519 (12.95)  
Adulthood covariates, n (%)
Age in 2011a 46.76 (1.07) 50.29 (1.17) 57.54 (2.76) 69.84 (5.75) < 0.001
Male 840 (42.68) 723 (45.90) 2505 (48.84) 2004 (49.99) < 0.001
Rural residence 1221 (62.04) 997 (63.30) 3335 (65.02) 2597 (64.78) 0.085
Married 1912 (97.15) 1489 (94.54) 4744 (92.49) 3083 (76.90) < 0.001
Ethnic Han 1823 (92.63) 1430 (90.79) 4720 (92.03) 3746 (93.44) 0.004
Education      < 0.001
 Less than primary school 462 (23.48) 432 (27.43) 2620 (51.08) 2330 (58.12)  
 Primary school or above 1506 (76.52) 1143 (72.57) 2509 (48.92) 1679 (41.88)  
Exposed to severe famine 792 (40.24) 579 (36.76) 2078 (40.51) 1662 (41.46) 0.015
Income (Chinese yuan)a 30,687.19 (41,771.75) 29,800.58 (48,565.44) 25,778.89 (38,968.84) 21,525.62 (36,813.99) < 0.001
Smoking status      < 0.001
 Nonsmoker 1308 (66.46) 984 (62.48) 2996 (58.41) 2333 (58.19)  
 Former smoker 168 (8.54) 133 (8.44) 554 (10.80) 500 (12.47)  
 Current smoker 492 (25.00) 458 (29.08) 1579 (30.79) 1176 (29.33)  
Drinking status      < 0.001
 Nondrinker 1195 (60.72) 920 (58.41) 2956 (57.63) 2348 (58.57)  
 Former drinker 85 (4.32) 82 (5.21) 379 (7.39) 463 (11.55)  
 Current drinker 688 (34.96) 573 (36.38) 1794 (34.98) 1198 (29.88)  
Overweight 974 (49.49) 762 (48.38) 2119 (41.31) 1374 (34.27) < 0.001
Hypertension 275 (13.97) 287 (18.22) 1138 (22.19) 1223 (30.51) < 0.001
Dyslipidemia 127 (6.45) 138 (8.76) 459 (8.95) 385 (9.60) 0.001
Diabetes 60 (3.05) 81 (5.14) 290 (5.65) 238 (5.94) < 0.001
Stroke 21 (1.07) 26 (1.65) 75 (1.46) 124 (3.09) < 0.001
Depression 404 (20.53) 384 (24.38) 1411 (27.51) 1319 (32.90) < 0.001
Cognitive function a 13.15 (2.92) 12.67 (3.11) 11.85 (3.27) 10.73 (3.46) < 0.001
  1. a The mean (standard deviation) was used to present the continuous variables