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Table 3 Outcome Evaluations

From: Evaluations of postoperative transitions in care for older adults: a scoping review

Author/Study Design Population Health Measures Experience Measures Cost Measures
Missel et al., 2015; Quasi-experimental intervention study NA Patient experience: patient experience regarding whether they felt supported with transitioning back to daily life, and patient rated physiological, psychological, social and existential outcomes using a questionnaire based on two validated questionnaires NA
Sawatzky et al., 2013; Randomized clinical trial, two group, repeated measures design Quality of life: measured using The Short Form-36 Health Survey; physical and mental component scores were also calculated.
Specific symptoms related to cardiac surgery recovery: using the patient-reported Symptom Inventory and via interviews
Patient satisfaction: quality of service and the amount of help received was measured using the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8). Utilization of care: The Health Care Resources Utilization (HCRU) Questionnaire was developed by the researchers to operationalize the outcome of healthcare costs. This questionnaire simply elicited the self-reported number of participant contacts/visits with their primary care provider and cardiologist, as well as emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions at the 2 and 6-week post discharge interviews.
Young et al., 2013; Two-arm, parallel-group multi-center randomized trial Distress and quality of life: Distress measured using the Distress Thermometer and quality of life measured using a PROM called the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C, specific to colorectal cancer). Patient experience: patient experience of care coordination using a questionnaire; patient experience of cancer care coordination using the Supportive Care Needs Survey Short Form (SCNS-SF34); patient views of the intervention using interviews. Utilization of care: postoperative neoadjuvant therapy, readmission, ED visits at 1 and 6 months using a questionnaire.
Middleton et al., 2004; Randomized controlled trial Stroke risk factors: using blood pressure
Cholesterol level: using a single question
Health status: self-reported measured using a likert-scale
Physical activity: self-reported measured using questionnaire
Smoking status: self-reported using a single question
Changes to lifestyle to reduce risk of stroke: self-reported using questionnaire
NA NA
Norcott et al., 2020; Observational cohort study NA NA Utilization of care: non-routine urgent postoperative care, defined as 30-day Emergency Department (ED), 30-day hospital readmissions, or either
Czarnecki et al., 2019; Retrospective observational cohort study NA NA Utilization of care: all-cause readmission within 1 year of discharge using an administrative dataset held at the Institute of Clinical Evaluative Sciences
Smucker et al., 2019; Prediction study NA NA Utilization of care: failure to discharge home, intermediate care in a Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF,) 90-day unplanned readmission
McDonald et al., 2018; Cohort study Complications: obtained using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes associated with the index surgical hospitalization obtained from billing data
Delirium: measured using the Confusion Assessment Method criteria
NA Utilization of care: length of stay (LOS), readmission rates (7-day and 30-day, all-cause inpatient readmission), and discharge disposition (home with self-care vs need for ongoing health services including home health, skilled nursing facility, or hospice) was obtained via medical records
Shargall et al., 2016; Pilot retrospective cohort study Mortality: overall 60-day mortality and mortality for readmitted patients up to 60 days after readmission Patient satisfaction: patient satisfaction of the Integrated Comprehensive Care Program using a satisfaction survey Utilization of care: hospital length of stay, 60-day readmission rate, 60-day Emergency Room visits collected via the St. Joseph’s Healthcare Hamilton administrative dataset and the Local Health Integration Network-integrated dataset
Economic analysis: cost of intervention reported only in intervention arm (no comparison of homecare costs was possible) based on homecare costs and comparison of inpatient costs between groups (case costing data, consisting of the average direct surgical and nonsurgical inpatient costs) according to the Ontario Case Costing Initiative methodology for 2011–2013 data
Xourafas et al., 2016; Observational cohort study NA NA Utilization of care: 30-day readmission from dehydration or failure to thrive collected by chart review
Weinberg et al. 2007; Prospective cohort study Freedom from pain and functional status: using questions from the PROM Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), a validated self-administered osteoarthritis instrument).
Mental health: using the mental health component of the Short Form (36-item) Health Survey.
NA NA
Weinberg et al., 2007; Prospective cohort study Freedom from pain and functional status: using questions from the PROM Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), a validated self-administered osteoarthritis instrument).
Mental health: using the mental health component of the Short Form (36-item) Health Survey.
Patient satisfaction: patient satisfaction with overall care during the post-discharge period with one question asking patients to rate their care using a likert scale NA
Quinlan et al., 2020; Quality Improvement project Quality of life: measured using the Short Form (12-item) Health Survey. Patient satisfaction: measured using a question as to whether patients thought their contact method was a good way for follow-up after hospital discharge Gaps in care: gaps in transitional care were identified by the Advanced Practice Nurse
Brooke et al., 2019; Qualitative interview study NA NA NA
Oksholm et al., 2018; Qualitative interview study NA Patient experience: overall patient experience using qualitative interviews and the hermeneutic analysis method NA
Wong et al., 2018; Pilot qualitative study Cardiac symptoms: described by patients over the phone and categorized using New York Heart Association (NYHA)
Perceived Health: measured using a 1–10 likert scale
Self-rated Pain: using a 1–10 likert scale
Weight change: patient-reported changes in weight using a scale
Depression and Anxiety: measured using a patient screening tool
Participating in physical activity: patient-reported over the telephone
NA Utilization of care: 30-day readmission
Chan et al., 2017; Qualitative interview study NA Patient experience: overall patient experience using interviews in order to identify the personal and systemic factors associated with care transitions, readmissions, and care satisfaction, and to inform optimal care transitions NA
Thomsen et al., 2017; Qualitative participatory action research NA Patient experience: overall patient experience and perspectives using qualitative interviews using a participatory action research methodology NA
Slager et al., 2017; Qualitative interview study NA NA NA
Hughes et al., 2000; Descriptive qualitative study NA NA NA