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Table 3 Oaxaca-type decomposition of changes in ADL and IADL inequalities between 2008 and 2018

From: Changes of inequality in functional disability of older populations in China from 2008 to 2018: a decomposition analysis

Predictor ADL IADL
Distributional change (Δc*ηkt) Elasticity change (Δη*ckt-1) Contribution to change(%) Distributional change (Δc*ηkt) Elasticity change (Δη*ckt-1) Contribution to change(%)
Sex (Ref. = Male)
 Female −0.0001 − 0.0001 2.23 − 0.0002 −0.0001 2.41
Age (Ref. = ≤80 years)
 >80 0.0004 −0.0001 −5.48 0.0011 0.0001 −9.72
Marital status (Ref. = Others)
 Living with spouse −0.0001 −0.0004 9.06 −0.0001 − 0.0004 5.04
Self-rated economic status (Ref. = Very poor)
 Poor 0.0003 −0.0023 36.25 0.0002 − 0.0034 27.84
 Fair 0.0114 −0.0015 −176.43 0.0079 0.0003 −70.84
 Rich 0.0019 −0.0126 191.07 0.0016 −0.0044 24.56
 Very rich 0.0001 −0.0019 32.76 0.0001 −0.0007 5.74
Years of schooling (ref. = 0)
 1–5 0.0002 0.0001 −2.91 0.0003 0.0001 −2.83
  ≥ 6 0.0001 0.0001 −1.45 0.0003 −0.0003 −0.33
Occupation (Ref. = Others)
 Agriculture 0.0001 −0.0006 10.02 0.0001 −0.0016 14.16
Regular exercise (Ref. = Yes)
 No −0.0007 −0.0032 68.74 −0.0019 − 0.0041 52.29
Chronic disease (Ref. = No)
 Yes 0.0003 0.0004 −13.57 0.0003 0.0004 −7.57
Residency (Ref. = Urban)
 Rural 0.0001 0.0044 −81.53 0.0001 0.0057 −50.90
Community support services (Ref. = 0)
  ≥ 1 0.0001 −0.0001 1.19 0.0001 0.0001 −0.28
Social security program enrolment (Ref. = 0)
 1 0.0004 0.0002 −10.90 0.0004 0.0002 −5.14
  ≥ 2 0.0011 −0.0017 11.04 0.0015 −0.0019 3.32
Living arrangements (Ref. = With family members)
 Alone 0.0008 −0.0016 15.29 0.0003 −0.0005 1.89
 In an institution 0.0012 0.0002 −26.08 0.0017 0.0007 −20.47
Household members (Ref. = 0)
 1–2 0.0004 0.0004 −14.63 0.0006 0.0005 −9.10
  ≥ 3 −0.0016 0.0013 5.07 −0.0022 0.0015 6.13
Access to medical care (Ref. = Yes)
 No 0.0025 −0.0024 −2.23 0.0017 −0.0013 −3.69
Out-of-pocket payment ratio (%) for medical bills 0.0000 0.0001 −0.25 0.0001 0.0001 −0.01
Per capita income 0.0001 0.0001 0.01 0.0001 0.0001 0.01
Skilled health workers per 1000 people 0.0001 0.0001 −3.53 0.0001 0.0006 −6.02
Hospital beds per 1000 people 0.0004 −0.0003 −2.82 0.0003 −0.0003 0.05