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Table 2 Contribution of personal and environmental predictors to socioeconomic inequalities of ADL and IADL

From: Changes of inequality in functional disability of older populations in China from 2008 to 2018: a decomposition analysis

Predictor 2008 2018
Cka ADL IADL Ck ADL IADL
Elasticity Contribution (%) Elasticity Contribution (%) Elasticity Contribution (%) Elasticity Contribution (%)
Sex (Ref. = Male)
 Female − 0.0071 0.0275 0.51 0.0812 0.42 −0.0091 0.0352 0.46 0.0938 0.32
Age (Ref. = ≤80 years)
 >80 −0.0024 0.1639 1.12 0.5588 1.06 −0.0004 0.2164 0.13 0.5574 0.09
Marital status (Ref. = Others)
 Living with spouse 0.0066 −0.1245 1.77 − 0.2330 0.92 0.0071 − 0.1871 1.71 − 0.2982 0.71
Self-rated economic status (Ref. = Very poor)
 Poor −0.7800 − 0.0061 −1.26 − 0.0067 − 0.39 − 0.8800 − 0.0031 −2.28 − 0.0023 − 0.44
 Fair 0.0564 −0.0519 3.30 −0.0595 1.05 −0.0879 −0.0791 −4.51 − 0.0545 −0.81
 Rich 0.8592 −0.0091 1.56 −0.0141 0.67 0.7781 −0.0238 2.92 −0.0192 0.61
 Very rich 0.9901 −0.0009 0.01 −0.0013 0.01 0.9735 −0.0028 0.08 −0.0020 0.01
Years of schooling (Ref. = 0)
 1–5 0.0318 −0.0085 0.10 −0.0151 0.05 0.0114 −0.0094 0.02 −0.0136 0.01
  ≥ 6 0.1549 −0.0043 0.17 −0.0096 0.10 0.1271 −0.0046 0.13 −0.0114 0.08
Occupation (Ref. = Others)
 Agriculture −0.0217 −0.0569 −3.42 − 0.0808 −1.35 − 0.0241 − 0.0280 − 0.96 − 0.0052 −0.05
Regular exercise (Ref. = Yes)
 No −0.0139 0.0023 0.09 0.3558 3.95 −0.0168 0.2310 6.12 0.6523 4.49
Chronic disease (Ref. = No)
 Yes −0.0188 0.0350 0.67 0.0387 0.20 0.0088 0.0116 −0.06 0.0163 −0.02
Residency (Ref. = Urban)
 Rural −0.0171 0.3145 14.28 0.3859 4.87 −0.0149 0.0545 1.08 0.0500 0.26
Community support services (Ref. = 0)
  ≥ 1 0.0312 0.0022 −0.03 − 0.0017 0.01 0.0088 0.0002 0.01 −0.0024 0.01
Social security program enrolment (Ref. = 0)
 1 −0.0321 − 0.0206 − 0.59 − 0.0281 − 0.22 − 0.0451 − 0.0282 −0.59 − 0.0331 −0.18
  ≥ 2 0.1420 −0.0024 0.13 −0.0066 0.10 0.0666 −0.0144 0.47 −0.0198 0.17
Living arrangement (Ref. = With family members)
 Alone −0.1328 0.0009 0.03 0.0012 0.01 −0.0739 0.0132 0.14 0.0051 0.01
 In an institution 0.0791 −0.0306 0.08 −0.0459 0.03 0.0344 −0.0279 0.03 −0.0371 0.01
Household members (Ref. = 0)
 1–2 −0.0049 −0.0239 − 0.09 −0.0309 − 0.03 −0.0091 − 0.1029 −0.46 − 0.1316 −0.15
  ≥ 3 −0.0568 −0.0205 − 0.70 − 0.0335 − 0.32 − 0.0201 − 0.0438 − 0.23 − 0.0596 −0.08
Access to medical care (Ref. = Yes)
 No −0.0340 0.0424 2.56 0.0393 0.66 −0.0118 0.1116 1.26 0.0773 0.23
Out-of-pocket payment ratio (%) −0.0176 0.0076 19.28 0.0048 3.38 −0.0148 0.0081 8.21 0.0056 1.48
Per capita income 0.0019 −0.0001 3.08 −0.0002 1.71 0.0006 −0.0002 3.45 0.0003 −1.35
Skilled health workers per 1000 people 0.0083 −0.1393 7.67 −0.2043 3.13 0.0075 −0.1278 6.26 −0.1338 2.16
Hospital beds per 1000 people 0.0083 −0.0318 1.37 −0.0092 0.11 0.0017 −0.0625 0.59 −0.0482 0.12
  1. a Ck: the concentration index of the predictive variables