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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants in 2008 and 2018

From: Changes of inequality in functional disability of older populations in China from 2008 to 2018: a decomposition analysis

Characteristics 2008 (n = 13,551) 2018 (n = 13,232) p
N % N %
Sex      0.001
 Male 5637 41.59 5769 43.59  
 Female 7914 58.41 7463 56.40  
Age (Years)      < 0.001
  ≤ 80 3805 28.07 4815 36.38  
  > 80 9746 71.93 8417 63.61  
Marital status      < 0.001
 With spouse 4031 29.75 5226 39.49  
 Others 9520 70.25 8006 60.50  
Self-rated economic status      < 0.001
 Very poor 432 3.18 181 1.36  
 Poor 2115 15.60 1108 8.37  
 Fair 9238 68.17 9404 71.07  
 Rich 1638 12.08 2234 16.88  
 Very rich 128 0.94 305 2.30  
Years of schooling      < 0.001
 0 8582 63.33 7617 57.56  
 1–5 2928 21.60 2555 19.30  
  ≥ 6 2041 15.07 3060 23.12  
Occupation      < 0.001
 Agriculture 9040 66.71 7052 53.29  
 Others 4511 33.29 6180 46.71  
Regular exercise      < 0.001
 Yes 3671 27.09 3897 29.45  
 No 9880 72.91 9335 70.54  
Chronic disease      < 0.001
 No 5276 38.93 4273 32.29  
 Yes 8275 61.06 8959 67.70  
Residency      < 0.001
 Urban 5361 39.56 7482 56.54  
 Rural 8190 60.44 5750 43.45  
Community support services      < 0.001
 0 9694 71.54 4798 36.26  
  ≥ 1 3857 28.46 8434 63.73  
Social security program enrolment      < 0.001
 0 3111 22.95 884 6.68  
 1 7363 54.33 6673 50.43  
  ≥ 2 3077 22.71 5675 42.88  
Living arrangement      < 0.001
 With family members 11,295 83.35 10,804 81.65  
 Alone 2034 15.01 2022 15.28  
 In an institution 222 1.64 406 3.06  
Household members      < 0.001
 0 2870 16.90 2428 18.35  
 1–2 8013 47.30 7012 52.99  
  ≥ 3 6069 38.80 3792 28.65  
Access to medical care      < 0.001
 Yes 12,569 92.75 12,924 97.67  
 No 982 7.25 308 2.33  
Out-of-pocket payment ratio (%) for medical bills (Mean ± SDa) 86.87 ± 27.96 73.24 ± 32.08 < 0.001
Per capita income at the provincial level (Mean ± SD) 9724.01 ± 6431.31 31,050.07 ± 11,649.08 < 0.001
Skilled health workers per 1000 people (Mean ± SD) 4.00 ± 1.68 7.05 ± 1.18 < 0.001
Hospital beds per 1000 people (Mean ± SD) 3.13 ± 1.05 6.00 ± 0.75 < 0.001
  1. a SD standard deviation