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Table 3 Multivariate Cox regression analysis of longitudinal patterns of cardiac biomarker for frailty events according to the “low” versus “elevated” dichotomization

From: Subclinical cardiovascular disease and frailty risk: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study

Variable N (%) Multivariate Cox regression  
HR (95% CI) for model 1 P HR (95% CI) for model 2 P
Hs-CTnT (cut-off: 14 ng/l) 0.002   0.025
 Stable low 4270 (90.0) REF.   REF.  
 Ascending 320 (6.8) 1.89 (1.13–3.15) 0.015 2.18 (1.18–4.05) 0.013
 Descending 46 (1.0) 0.43 (0.35–3.52) 0.432 1.07 (0.24–8.22) 0.946
 Stable elevated 106 (2.2) 3.03 (1.45–6.31) 0.003 2.70 (1.00–7.26) 0.048
NT-proBNP (cut-off: 100 pg/ml) 0.001   0.006
 Stable low 3186 (67.2) REF.   REF.  
 Ascending 751 (15.8) 1.33 (0.98–1.81) 0.067 1.55 (1.05–2.29) 0.027
 Descending 231 (4.9) 1.26 (0.77–2.06) 0.364 1.47 (0.81–2.67) 0.206
 Stable elevated 574 (12.1) 1.88 (1.37–2.58) < 0.001 1.97 (1.30–3.00) 0.001
NT-proBNP (cut-off: 300 pg/ml) 0.030   0.083
 Stable low 4380 (92.8) REF.   REF.  
 Ascending 248 (5.2) 1.27 (0.68–2.37) 0.451 1.54 (0.72–3.29) 0.266
 Descending 62 (1.4) 2.21 (0.81–6.04) 0.122 2.86 (0.62–13.17) 0.177
 Stable elevated 52 (1.0) 3.52 (1.31–9.46) 0.013 3.49 (1.21–10.02) 0.020
  1. Model 1: adjusted by age, sex, center-race, education (<high school, high school, or > high school), smoking (never, former, current), drinking (never, former, current), body mass index, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, total cholesterol, triglycerides
  2. Model 2: adjusted by model 1 plus cognition Z score, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer
  3. hs-CTnT high-sensitive cardiac troponin T, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval