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Table 3 Aggregate Cost in U.S dollars of all PPI, benzodiazepine, or antipsychotic drugs from 2013 to 2019 for beneficiaries over 65 yearsa,b

From: Prescribing trends of proton pump inhibitors, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines of medicare part d providers

PPI Class 2013 (n = $71,050,836,274) 2014 (n = $81,973,711,182) 2015 (n = $92,529,508,750) 2016 (n = $100,249,753,916) 2017 (n = $107,531,371,999) 2018 (n = $119,157,323,622) 2019 (n = $132,354,368,318)
Dexlansoprazole 214,257,666 (3016) 271,867,604 (3317) 345,694,553 (3736) 400,355,153 (3994) 428,920,381 (3989) 440,172,126 (3694) 454,994,317 (3438)
Esomeprazole 1,838,406,947 (25,875) 1,950,215,744 (23,791) 1,656,840,791 (17,906) 1,160,036,693 (11,571) 790,467,867 (7351) 548,797,134 (4606) 392,139,694 (2963)
Lansoprazole 175,009,663 (2463) 145,050,920 (1769) 124,945,073 (1350) 89,526,564 (893) 70,548,353 (656) 66,721,947 (560) 61,824,846 (467)
Omeprazole 546,017,766 (7685) 458,143,392 (5589) 402,350,325 (4348) 430,758,245 (4297) 465,339,922 (4327) 461,354,660 (3872) 463,478,280 (3502)
Pantoprazole 169,448,043 (2385) 171,077,701 (2087) 173,546,791 (1876) 187,518,248 (1871) 204,724,125 (1904) 221,413,798 (1858) 260,890,013 (1971)
Rabeprazole 132,084,336 (1859) 55,994,036 (683) 44,772,854 (484) 38,616,122 (385) 33,881,913 (315) 32,600,354 (274) 31,043,886 (235)
Totalc 3,075,224,421 (43,282) 3,052,349,399 (37,236) 2,748,150,386 (29,700) 2,306,811,025 (23,011) 1,993,882,562 (18,542) 1,771,060,019 (14,863) 1,664,371,037 (12,575)
Benzodiazepines
 Alprazolam 59,779,546 (841) 64,897,520 (792) 70,841,054 (766) 78,206,882 (780) 76,334,553 (710) 82,787,025 (695) 78,495,459 (593)
 Chlordiazepoxide 2,511,327 (35) 2,629,713 (32) 2,358,428 (25) 5,307,039 (53) 10,589,236 (98) 10,156,464 (85) 8,977,263 (68)
 Clonazepam 36,337,909 (511) 36,943,872 (451) 35,498,553 (384) 46,603,866 (465) 42,401,690 (394) 44,309,680 (372) 45,475,579 (344)
 Clorazepate 5,188,731 (73) 4,921,226 (60) 6,211,661 (67) 13,905,167 (139) 20,277,380 (189) 19,873,626 (167) 17,634,246 (133)
 Diazepam 14,719,360 (207) 15,646,497 (191) 16,302,551 (176) 17,573,465 (175) 17,732,681 (165) 18,552,089 (156) 16,993,123 (128)
 Estazolam 588,400 (8) 736,312 (9) 836,528 (9) 930,009 (9) 1,006,178 (9) 1,204,282 (10) 1,555,074 (12)
 Eszopiclone 139,101,466 (1958) 101,569,293 (1239) 30,142,622 (326) 19,652,066 (196) 17,327,812 (161) 19,218,936 (161) 18,502,479 (138)
 Flurazepam 314,929 (4) 353,429 (4) 465,248 (5) 488,256 (5) 442,444 (4) 463,938 (4) 185,259 (1)
 Lorazepam 67,972,421 (957) 68,590,970 (837) 77,512,533 (838) 80,791,330 (806) 71,867,245 (668) 70,564,757 (592) 69,433,942 (524)
 Oxazepam 6,386,352 (90) 5,695,946 (69) 4,963,544 (54) 4,015,017 (40) 4,160,395 (39) 3,986,512 (33) 3,644,592 (28)
 Temazepam 37,064,285 (522) 40,487,830 (494) 42,890,739 (464) 39,642,909 (395) 35,112,223 (327) 31,928,995 (268) 29,138,759 (220)
 Triazolam 2,550,427 (36) 4,429,516 (54) 4,738,528 (51) 4,429,364 (44) 5,495,847 (51) 6,567,877 (55) 6,320,590 (48)
 Zolpidem 115,313,227 (1623) 102,107,687 (1246) 104,330,138 (1128) 95,799,044 (956) 78,435,056 (729) 73,375,604 (616) 70,525,182 (533)
Totalc 487,828,377 (6866) 449,009,812 (5477) 397,092,128 (4292) 407,344,414 (4063) 381,182,739 (3545) 382,989,785 (3214) 366,881,546 (2772)
Antipsychotics
 Amoxapine 499,153 (7) 588,506 (7) 573,427 (6) 526,986 (5) 487,043 (5) 163,355 (1) 219,167 (2)
 Aripiprazole 590,466,994 (8310) 732,163,777 (8932) 699,936,189 (7564) 379,335,492 (3784) 219,441,554 (2041) 182,150,245 (1529) 173,416,656 (1310)
 Asenapine 9,728,156 (137) 111,213,935 (137) 13,569,011 (147) 16,873,815 (168) 19,123,233 (178) 21,280,694 (179) 21,756,410 (164)
 Chlorpromazine 7,131,820 (100) 9,795,297 (119) 21,228,046 (229) 24,273,182 (242) 26,012,221 (242) 26,187,645 (220) 24,511,683 (185)
 Clozapine 12,610,319 (177) 13,795,766 (168) 15,314,388 (166) 16,249,377 (162) 16,369,132 (152) 16,936,993 (142) 17,830,752 (135)
 Haloperidol 6,769,277 (95) 10,944,735 (134) 11,059,976 (120) 10,376,258 (104) 9,768,919 (91) 9,210,830 (77) 6,922,736 (52)
 Iloperidone 5,126,448 (72) 6,591,321 (80) 8,408,450 (91) 8,874,364 (89) 9,365,596 (87) 11,108,384 (93) 12,382,946 (94)
 Loxapine 1,150,830 (16) 1,083,650 (13) 1,093,348 (12) 1,114,192 (11) 1,178,207 (11) 1,269,508 (11) 1,299,262 (10)
 Olanzapine 171,954,481 (2420) 121,139,053 (1478) 68,793,400 (743) 53,922,986 (538) 53,003,088 (493) 55,484,734 (466) 57,189,092 (432)
 Paliperidone 27,481,223 (387) 36,565,417 (446) 43,484,885 (470) 41,845,333 (417) 42,856,874 (399) 46,104,999 (387) 49,418,006 (373)
 Quetiapine 329,435,654 (4637) 287,746,496 (3510) 239,227,530 (2585) 225,727,973 (2252) 164,615,907 (1531) 121,342,340 (1018) 124,077,930 (937)
 Risperidone 64,862,457 (913) 50,992,510 (622) 42,461,823 (459) 34,760,864 (347) 33,501,159 (312) 35,111,661 (295) 36,775,415 (278)
Totalc 1,227,216,812 (17,272) 1,282,620,463 (15,647) 1,165,150,475 (12,592) 813,880,822 (8119) 595,722,934 (5540) 526,351,388 (4417) 525,800,055 (3973)
  1. aTotal may be more or less than sum of columns due to rounding bDollars spent on PPI, benzodiazepine, or antipsychotics per $1,000,000 in drug costs in parentheses cPer Cochran-Armitage trend test, p-value was < 0.0001 for all class level yearly trends