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Table 2 Standardized 30-day claims of all PPI, benzodiazepine, or antipsychotic drugs from 2013 to 2019 for beneficiaries over 65 yearsa,b

From: Prescribing trends of proton pump inhibitors, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines of medicare part d providers

PPI Class 2013 (n = 1,525,617,121) 2014 (n = 1,623,590,539) 2015 (n = 1,705,969,287) 2016 (n = 1,807,356,444) 2017 (n = 1,900,796,290) 2018 (n = 2,002,880,967) 2019 (n = 2,107,865,407)
Dexlansoprazole 1,380,477 (904.9) 1,505,394 (927.2) 1,625,004 (952.5) 1,703,889 (942.8) 1,695,956 (892.2) 1,610,572 (804.1) 1,610,456 (764.0)
Esomeprazole 8,399,067 (5505.4) 7,893,796 (4861.9) 6,715,893 (3936.7) 6,098,071 (3374.0) 5,556,476 (2923.2) 5,242,718 (2617.6) 5,350,628 (2538.4)
Lansoprazole 2,544,238 (1667.7) 2,574,546 (1585.7) 2,599,759 (1523.9) 2,094,272 (1158.7) 1,828,125 (961.8) 1,706,397 (852.0) 1,758,957 (834.5)
Omeprazole 39,094,935 (25,625.7) 41,844,057 (25,772.5) 43,825,968 (25,689.8) 44,688,976 (24,726.2) 44,796,720 (23,567.3) 44,997,662 (22,466.5) 46,085,910 (21,863.8)
Pantoprazole 11,652,900 (7638.2) 14,646,066 (9020.8) 17,225,462 (10,097.2) 19,669,593 (10,883.1) 22,436,785 (11,803.9) 25,311,162 (12,637.4) 28,386,189 (13,466.8)
Rabeprazole 400,978 (262.8) 418,531 (257.8) 425,075 (249.2) 429,043 (237.4) 404,367 (212.7) 394,507 (197.0) 407,139 (193.2)
Totalc 63,472,595 (41,604.5) 68,882,390 (42,426.0) 72,417,161 (42,449.3) 74,683,844 (41,322.1) 76,718,429 (40,361.2) 79,263,017 (39,574.5) 83,599,279 (39,660.6)
Benzodiazepines
 Alprazolam 9,054,121 (5934.7) 9,984,091 (6149.4) 10,647,341 (6241.2) 10,922,480 (6043.3) 10,791,550 (5677.4) 10,562,729 (5273.8) 10,065,051 (4775.0)
 Chlordiazepoxide 133,488 (87.5) 137,074 (84.4) 125,893 (73.8) 138,132 (76.4) 143,115 (75.3) 129,533 (64.7) 123,152 (58.4)
 Clonazepam 4,931,284 (3232.3) 5,554,184 (3420.9) 5,845,004 (3426.2) 6,117,389 (3384.7) 6,214,469 (3269.4) 6,236,771 (3113.9) 6,122,109 (2904.4)
 Clorazepate 300,691 (197.1) 329,567 (203) 322,971 (189.3) 301,343 (166.7) 272,138 (143.2) 242,187 (120.9) 200,841 (95.3)
 Diazepam 2,245,451 (1471.8) 2,443,486 (1505.0) 2,462,614 (1443.5) 2,505,014 (1386.0) 2,457,803 (1293.0) 2,351,823 (1174.2) 2,237,533 (1061.5)
 Estazolam 45,475 (29.8) 47,633 (29.3) 46,411 (27.2) 46,938 (26) 46,512 (24.5) 45,366 (22.7) 49,049 (23.3)
 Eszopiclone 580,254 (380.3) 526,896 (324.5) 419,267 (245.8) 408,970 (226.3) 447,786 (235.6) 463,569 (231.5) 466,642 (221.4)
 Flurazepam 50,117 (32.9) 41,737 (25.7) 36,383 (21.3) 28,040 (15.5) 22,756 (12) 23,313 (11.6) 9776 (4.6)
 Lorazepam 7,761,603 (5087.5) 8,265,974 (5091.2) 8,551,799 (5012.9) 8,687,678 (4806.8) 8,362,089 (4399.3) 7,919,633 (3954.1) 7,433,428 (3536.5)
 Oxazepam 117,709 (77.2) 114,033 (70.2) 103,174 (60.5) 91,252 (50.5) 79,027 (41.6) 71,611 (35.8) 62,830 (29.8)
 Temazepam 2,791,499 (1829.8) 3,155,738 (1943.7) 3,162,469 (1853.8) 2,985,863 (1652.1) 2,828,484 (1488.1) 2,782,561 (1389.3) 2,460,749 (1167.4)
 Triazolam 167,771 (110) 154,825 (95.4) 142,649 (83.6) 120,877 (66.9) 112,632 (59.3) 107,776 (53.8) 103,389 (49.0)
 Zolpidem 9,604,632 (6295.6) 8,214,618 (5059.5) 6,626,870 (3884.5) 5,952,027 (3293.2) 6,319,613 (3324.7) 6,658,375 (3324.4) 6,550,034 (3107.4)
Totalc 37,784,095 (24,766.4) 38,969,856 (24,002.3) 38,492,846 (22,563.6) 38,306,005 (21,194.5) 38,097,973 (20,043.2) 37,595,246 (18,770.6) 35,884,583 (17,024.1)
Antipsychotics
 Amoxapine 14,580 (9.6) 14,304 (8.8) 13,658 (8.0) 13,022 (7.2) 10,523 (5.5) 3548 (1.8) 4527 (2.1)
 Aripiprazole 1,039,944 (681.7) 1,097,009 (675.7) 1,061,993 (622.5) 1,107,915 (613.0) 1,261,167 (663.5) 1,453,819 (725.9) 1,680,325 (797.2)
 Asenapine 22,847 (15.0) 24,668 (15.2) 25,991 (15.2) 27,770 (15.4) 28,319 (14.9) 28,525 (14.2) 28,477 (13.5)
 Chlorpromazine 96,755 (63.4) 95,848 (59.0) 91,879 (53.9) 87,516 (48.4) 84,630 (44.5) 84,354 (42.1) 87,195 (41.4)
 Clozapine 165,723 (108.6) 177,990 (109.6) 187,585 (110.0) 198,042 (109.6) 205,617 (108.2) 221,301 (110.5) 229,311 (108.8)
 Haloperidol 512,097 (335.7) 503,232 (310.0) 484,145 (283.8) 471,944 (261.1) 454,201 (239.0) 418,037 (208.7) 254,519 (120.7)
 Iloperidone 11,416 (7.5) 13,468 (8.3) 12,824 (7.5) 11,546 (6.4) 11,145 (5.9) 11,922 (6.0) 12,142 (5.8)
 Loxapine 30,034 (19.7) 31,148 (19.2) 31,149 (18.3) 34,058 (17.7) 32,667 (17.2) 33,333 (16.6) 32,799 (15.6)
 Olanzapine 1,510,182 (989.9) 1,566,810 (965.0) 1,632,941 (957.2) 1,730,381 (957.4) 1,822,656 (958.9) 1,924,529 (960.9) 2,030,909 (963.5)
 Paliperidone 45,177 (29.6) 50,295 (31.0) 53,023 (31.1) 58,124 (32.2) 63,752 (33.5) 71,569 (35.7) 79,408 (37.7)
 Quetiapine 4,303,901 (2821.1) 4,605,672 (2836.7) 4,879,421 (2860.2) 5,213,015 (2884.3) 5,569,245 (2930.0) 5,978,830 (2985.1) 6,409,240 (3040.6)
 Risperidone 2,617,402 (1715.6) 2,562,152 (1578.1) 2,497,330 (1463.9) 2,488,164 (1376.7) 2,461,674 (1295.1) 2,468,146 (1232.3) 2,511,367 (1191.4)
Totalc 10,370,056 (6797.3) 10,742,595 (6616.6) 10,971,938 (6431.5) 11,439,496 (6329.4) 12,005,595 (6316.1) 12,697,912 (6339.8) 13,360,219 (6338.3)
  1. aTotal may be more or less than sum of columns due to rounding bStandardized 30-day PPI, benzodiazepine, or antipsychotic claims per 1,000,000 30-day claims in parentheses cPer Cochran-Armitage trend test, p-value was < 0.0001 for all total class level yearly trends