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Table 1 Number of beneficiaries over the age of 65 years with at least one claim for a PPI, benzodiazepine, or antipsychotic from 2013 to 2019a

From: Prescribing trends of proton pump inhibitors, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines of medicare part d providers

PPI Class 2013 (n = 28,844,629) 2014 (n = 30,684,148) 2015 (n = 32,313,123) 2016 (n = 33,891,805) 2017 (n = 35,372,145) 2018 (n = 36,932,602) 2019 (n = 38,553,139)
Dexlansoprazole 226,986 (0.8%) 225,310 (0.7%) 232,998 (0.7%) 233,815 (0.7%) 223,256 (0.6%) 211,981 (0.6%) 201,243 (0.5%)
Esomeprazole 1,111,550 (3.9%) 1,061,160 (3.5%) 1,076,591 (3.3%) 916,632 (2.7%) 797,721 (2.3%) 688,701 (1.9%) 672,584 (1.7%)
Lansoprazole 387,702 (1.3%) 380,258 (1.2%) 364,983 (1.1%) 300,835 (0.9%) 244,572 (0.7%) 225,696 (0.6%) 230,987 (0.6%)
Omeprazole 5,108,489 (17.7%) 5,395,876 (17.6%) 5,599,523 (17.3%) 5,671,998 (16.7%) 5,588,075 (15.8%) 5,555,228 (15.0%) 5,649,420 (14.7%)
Pantoprazole 1,758,007 (6.1%) 2,146,790 (7.0%) 2,450,771 (7.6%) 2,738,089 (8.1%) 3,076,216 (8.7%) 3,407,091 (9.2%) 3,781,609 (9.8%)
Rabeprazole 75,443 (0.3%) 61,212 (0.2%) 54,968 (0.2%) 52,534 (0.2%) 49,292 (0.1%) 48,827 (0.1%) 50,459 (0.1%)
Totalb 8,668,177 (30.1%) 9,270,606 (30.2%) 9,779,834 (30.3%) 9,913,903 (29.3%) 9,979,132 (28.2%) 10,137,524 (27.4%) 10,586,302 (27.5%)
Benzodiazepines
 Alprazolam 1,786,661 (6.2%) 1,865,302 (6.1%) 1,980,676 (6.1%) 2,009,077 (5.9%) 2,000,549 (5.7%) 1,965,284 (5.3%) 1,905,324 (4.9%)
 Chlordiazepoxide 31,937 (0.1%) 27,715 (< 0.1%) 25,178 (< 0.1%) 29,595 (< 0.1%) 30,014 (< 0.1%) 26,637 (< 0.1%) 25,674 (< 0.1%)
 Clonazepam 752,162 (2.6%) 813,472 (2.7%) 844,327 (2.6%) 871,342 (2.6%) 886,423 (2.5%) 891,142 (2.4%) 878,711 (2.3%)
 Clorazepate 55,888 (0.2%) 57,288 (0.2%) 54,743 (0.2%) 50,707 (0.1%) 46,122 (0.1%) 40,986 (0.1%) 34,705 (< 0.1%)
 Diazepam 664,643 (2.3%) 684,480 (2.2%) 679,446 (2.1%) 694,963 (2.1%) 697,061 (2.0%) 687,401 (1.9%) 671,488 (1.7%)
 Estazolam 10,435 (< 0.1%) 9439 (< 0.1%) 9190 (< 0.1%) 8651 (< 0.1%) 8307 (< 0.1%) 8300 (< 0.1%) 8567 (< 0.1%)
 Eszopiclone 105,064 (0.4%) 139,817 (0.5%) 85,005 (0.3%) 76,631 (0.2%) 78,527 (0.2%) 81,222 (0.2%) 79,400 (0.2%)
 Flurazepam 14,508 (< 0.1%) 10,050 (< 0.1%) 8148 (< 0.1%) 6463 (< 0.1%) 5075 (< 0.1%) 4731 (< 0.1%) 3359 (< 0.1%)
 Lorazepam 1,617,143 (5.6%) 1,642,220 (5.4%) 1,700,107 (5.3%) 1,709,125 (5.0%) 1,667,926 (4.7%) 1,595,208 (4.3%) 1,531,912 (4.0%)
 Oxazepam 21,148 (< 0.1%) 18,241 (< 0.1%) 15,736 (< 0.1%) 13,899 (< 0.1%) 12,134 (< 0.1%) 10,866 (< 0.1%) 9482 (< 0.1%)
 Temazepam 524,470 (1.8%) 543,168 (1.7%) 557,689 (1.7%) 523,224 (1.5%) 480,709 (1.4%) 462,935 (1.3%) 419,709 (1.1%)
 Triazolam 48,416 (0.2%) 35,747 (0.1%) 32,590 (0.1%) 28,584 (< 0.1%) 26,591 (< 0.1%) 26,758 (< 0.1%) 27,611 (< 0.1%)
 Zolpidem 1,758,215 (6.1%) 1,608,998 (5.2%) 1,449,947 (4.5%) 1,288,142 (3.8%) 1,202,397 (3.4%) 1,185,920 (3.2%) 1,140,302 (3.0%)
Totalb 7,390,690 (25.6%) 7,455,937 (24.3%) 7,442,782 (23.0%) 7,310,403 (21.6%) 7,141,835 (20.2%) 6,987,390 (18.9%) 6,736,244 (17.5%)
Antipsychotics
 Amoxapine 1555 (< 0.1%) 1527 (< 0.1%) 1439 (< 0.1%) 1383 (< 0.1%) 1250 (< 0.1%) 611(< 0.1%) 569 (< 0.1%)
 Aripiprazole 126,298 (0.4%) 131,256 (0.4%) 196,453 (0.6%) 155,139 (0.5%) 165,097 (0.5%) 187,750 (0.5%) 213,379 (0.6%)
 Asenapine 3586 (< 0.1%) 3620 (< 0.1%) 3636 (< 0.1%) 3639 (< 0.1%) 3388 (< 0.1%) 3220 (< 0.1%) 3141 (< 0.1%)
 Chlorpromazine 21,011 (< 0.1%) 20,943 (< 0.1%) 20,062 (< 0.1%) 19,113 (< 0.1%) 18,950 (< 0.1%) 18,362 (< 0.1%) 17,757 (< 0.1%)
 Clozapine 8,813 (< 0.1%) 9,362 (< 0.1%) 10,123 (< 0.1%) 10,730 (< 0.1%) 11,464 (< 0.1%) 12,278 (< 0.1%) 13,004 (< 0.1%)
 Haloperidol 98,486 (0.3%) 94,136 (0.3%) 89,010 (0.3%) 83,392 (0.2%) 78,850 (0.2%) 72,109 (0.2%) 46.401 (0.1%)
 Iloperidone 1337 (< 0.1%) 1329 (< 0.1%) 1183 (< 0.1%) 976 (< 0.1%) 989 (< 0.1%) 1039 (< 0.1%) 1011 (< 0.1%)
 Loxapine 3214 (< 0.1%) 3341 (< 0.1%) 3277 (< 0.1%) 3318 (< 0.1%) 3295 (< 0.1%) 3348 (< 0.1%) 3477 (< 0.1%)
 Olanzapine 191,485 (0.7%) 196,381 (0.6%) 203,320 (0.6%) 211,627 (0.6%) 222,829 (0.6%) 235,154 (0.6%) 248,824 (0.6%)
 Paliperidone 4674 (< 0.1%) 5226 (< 0.1%) 7307 (< 0.1%) 7099 (< 0.1%) 7107 (< 0.1%) 7735 (< 0.1%) 8396 (< 0.1%)
 Quetiapine 538,274 (1.9%) 572,652 (1.9%) 600,267 (1.9%) 631,804 (1.9%) 667,785 (1.9%) 705,936 (1.9%) 743,744 (1.9%)
 Risperidone 339,875 (1.2%) 326,341 (1.1%) 315,664 (1.0%) 305,413 (0.9%) 296,788 (0.8%) 293,081 (0.8%) 291,000 (0.8%)
Totalb 1,338,608 (4.6%) 1,366,114 (4.5%) 1,451,741 (4.5%) 1,433,633 (4.2%) 1,477,792 (4.2%) 1,540,623 (4.2%) 1,590,703 (4.1%)
  1. aPercent of all Medicare Part D beneficiaries over the age of 65 years with a PPI, benzodiazepine, or antipsychotic claim from 2013 to 2018 in parentheses bPer Cochran-Armitage trend test, p-value was < 0.0001 for all class level yearly trends