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Table 2 Oral health-related characteristics stratified by frailty level (age ≥ 50 years)

From: Association between oral health and frailty: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Characteristics Frailty Phenotype p Frailty Index p
Robust Pre-frail Frail Robust Pre-frail Frail
Total participants 2059 (53.79) 1892 (41.83) 205 (4.38)   4570 (33.23) 8727 (56.02) 1776 (10.74)  
Key oral diseases
 Periodontal disease No 1116 (54.98) 987 (58.43) 93 (55.46) 0.234 2477 (56.72) 4194 (53.66) 808 (53.24) 0.023
Yes 817 (45.02) 742 (41.58) 87 (44.54) 1809 (43.28) 3618 (46.34) 651 (46.76)  
 Natural teeth, weighted mean (SE) 23.82 (0.18) 20.99 (0.26) 18.26 (0.78) p1: <  0.001
p2: <  0.001
23.77 (0.12) 20.72 (0.12) 16.78 (0.28) p1: <  0.001
p2: <  0.001
Oral hygiene/management behaviors
 Brushed after breakfast, lunch, dinnera No 1341 (65.56) 1383 (74.95) 147 (71.54) <  0.001 3117 (68.54) 6613 (76.03) 1415 (79.38) <  0.001
Yes 718 (34.44) 509 (25.05) 58 (28.46)   1453 (31.46) 2114 (23.97) 361 (20.62)  
 Brushed before beda No 1314 (65.56) 1279 (66.96) 152 (72.75) 0.279 2928 (63.67) 6012 (68.20) 1339 (74.34) <  0.001
Yes 745 (34.44) 613 (33.04) 53 (27.25)   1641 (36.33) 2714 (31.80) 437 (25.66)  
 Currently using floss No 1659 (82.86) 1629 (85.56) 192 (93.26) 0.006 3696 (82.21) 7552 (87.41) 1614 (94.14) <  0.001
Yes 399 (17.14) 260 (14.44) 12 (6.74)   846 (17.79) 1062 (12.59) 96 (5.86)  
 Currently using interdental toothbrush No 1761 (84.47) 1677 (88.94) 179 (88.61) 0.003 3780 (82.06) 7458 (85.76) 1530 (89.96) <  0.001
Yes 297 (15.53) 212 (11.06) 25 (11.39)   762 (17.94) 1156 (14.24) 180 (10.04)  
 Currently using mouthwash No 1375 (67.78) 1457 (78.60) 180 (85.47) <  0.001 3292 (73.26) 6863 (79.75) 1527 (88.77) <  0.001
Yes 683 (32.22) 432 (21.40) 24 (14.53)   1250 (26.74) 1751 (20.25) 183 (11.23)  
 Currently using electronic toothbrush No 1958 (94.58) 1823 (96.93) 201 (99.05) 0.001 4318 (94.78) 8330 (96.45) 1669 (97.67) <  0.001
Yes 100 (5.42) 66 (3.07) 3 (0.95)   224 (5.22) 284 (3.55) 41 (2.33)  
 Currently using other oral hygiene toolsb No 1921 (93.45) 1753 (93.41) 193 (94.63) 0.869 4300 (94.88) 8002 (93.33) 1563 (91.94) 0.001
Yes 137 (6.55) 136 (6.59) 11 (5.37)   242 (5.12) 612 (6.67) 147 (8.06)  
 Any oral examination within 1 yearc At least once 829 (37.66) 572 (29.66) 43 (21.15) <  0.001 1710 (36.78) 2427 (28.46) 286 (17.29) <  0.001
None 1228 (62.34) 1317 (70.34) 161 (78.85)   2831 (63.22) 6183 (71.54) 1422 (82.71)  
 Any prophylactic treatment within 1 yeard At least once 688 (29.39) 503 (23.68) 41 (22.28) 0.003 1345 (27.70) 2074 (23.52) 261 (14.09) <  0.001
None 1369 (70.61) 1385 (76.32) 163 (77.72)   3196 (72.30) 6537 (76.48) 1443 (85.91)  
  1. Unweighted frequencies (weighted percentage) shown, otherwise indicated. Missing data not shown. p-values from chi-square test or ANOVA (p1: Robust vs. Pre-frail; p2: Robust vs. Frail)
  2. SE: Standard error
  3. a Brushing patterns from the previous day. If the participant did not take a meal but brushed, it was recorded as brushed before meal
  4. b Water pick, tongue cleaner, specialized brush (e.g., toothbrush for implants), denture cleansers, etc.
  5. c Received any regular oral examinations within the past year, even if the participant was not experiencing any problems
  6. d Dental sealants, fluoride treatment, scaling, etc.