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Table 1 General characteristics stratified by frailty level (age ≥ 50 years)

From: Association between oral health and frailty: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Characteristics Frailty Phenotype p Frailty Index p
Robust Pre-frail Frail Robust Pre-frail Frail
Total participants 2059 (53.79) 1892 (41.83) 205 (4.38)   4570 (33.23) 8727 (56.02) 1776 (10.74)  
Age (years), weighted mean (SE) 59.37 (0.25) 63.90 (0.32) 68.93 (0.89) p1: <  0.001
p2: <  0.001
58.31 (0.13) 64.07 (0.14) 71.39 (0.28) p1: <  0.001
p2: <  0.001
Sex Males 939 (49.57) 829 (45.12) 78 (32.43) <  0.001 2124 (49.34) 3727 (44.35) 554 (32.05) <  0.001
Females 1120 (50.43) 1063 (54.88) 127 (67.57) 2446 (50.66) 5000 (55.65) 1222 (67.95)  
Diet quality Not poor 743 (56.07) 598 (50.36) 64 (48.01) 0.014 2138 (58.24) 3906 (55.04) 807 (54.38) 0.007
Poora 1316 (43.93) 1294 (49.64) 141 (51.99)   2432 (41.76) 4821 (44.96) 969 (45.62)  
Living in rural areas No 1093 (53.35) 915 (47.57) 97 (48.42) 0.033 2209 (48.60) 3972 (45.02) 755 (41.85) 0.001
Yesb 966 (46.65) 977 (52.43) 108 (51.58)   2361 (51.40) 4755 (54.98) 1021 (58.15)  
Low household income No 1216 (62.01) 771 (44.25) 41 (22.99) <  0.001 2797 (63.36) 3403 (42.41) 324 (20.13) <  0.001
Yesc 837 (37.99) 1116 (55.75) 163 (77.01)   1760 (36.64) 5280 (57.59) 1446 (79.87)  
Education (years) ≥ 9 years 1629 (80.13) 1092 (60.96) 86 (47.99) <  0.001 3581 (80.22) 4749 (56.91) 472 (28.88) <  0.001
< 9 years 430 (19.87) 796 (39.04) 119 (52.01)   971 (19.78) 3914 (43.09) 1268 (71.12)  
Living alone No 1728 (85.15) 1419 (77.79) 125 (61.73) <  0.001 3910 (86.38) 6446 (75.39) 926 (51.84) <  0.001
Yesd 330 (14.85) 472 (22.21) 80 (38.27)   656 (13.62) 2275 (24.61) 849 (48.16)  
Type of national health insurance Self/workplace 2030 (98.41) 1789 (94.81) 178 (85.86) <  0.001 4496 (98.42) 8200 (94.08) 1423 (80.94) <  0.001
Otherse 29 (1.59) 103 (5.19) 27 (14.14)   74 (1.58) 527 (5.92) 353 (19.06)  
Smoking history Never 1308 (60.81) 1166 (61.10) 139 (70.59) 0.118 2809 (59.99) 5331 (59.97) 1152 (66.38) <  0.001
Past/currentf 750 (39.19) 723 (38.90) 65 (29.41)   1736 (40.01) 3289 (40.03) 558 (33.62)  
Frequent alcohol drinking No 648 (30.58) 743 (37.03) 103 (52.76) <  0.001 1331 (28.41) 3502 (38.36) 1077 (62.10) <  0.001
Yesg 1411 (69.42) 1147 (62.97) 102 (47.24)   3217 (71.59) 5129 (61.64) 641 (37.90)  
Number of comorbiditiesh < 2 1305 (65.96) 942 (54.30) 68 (31.69) <  0.001 3966 (87.57) 3518 (41.83) 408 (26.17) <  0.001
≥ 2 754 (34.04) 950 (45.70) 137 (68.31)   604 (12.43) 5209 (57.17) 1368 (73.83)  
  1. Unweighted frequencies (weighted percentage) shown, otherwise indicated. Missing data not shown. p-values from chi-square test or ANOVA (p1: robust vs. pre-frail; p2: robust vs. frail). SE: Standard error
  2. a Poor if Korean healthy eating index < 50 (out of 100), a higher score indicating a healthier diet
  3. b Non-metropolitan statistical areas (MSA). MSA were namely Busan, Daegu, Incheon, Gwangju, Daejeon, Sejong, Seoul, and Ulsan
  4. c Equivalised household income i.e., household income/√(number of household members), in the lowest 50%. Quartiles were stratified by sex and age group
  5. d Never married, separated, widowed, or divorced
  6. e Medical aid class 1 or 2, no health insurance, or unknown
  7. f Smoked at least 5 packs of cigarettes in a lifetime
  8. g Drank at least once a month within the past year
  9. h Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia (namely abnormal blood cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, or low-density lipoprotein), stroke, heart disease (namely myocardial infarction or angina pectoris), arthritis, depression, asthma, cirrhosis, renal failure, and cancer other than skin cancer