Skip to main content

Table 2 Estimated regression coefficients from mixed effects modelling to show the effect of training over time (N = 32)

From: Effects of supervised high-intensity hardstyle kettlebell training on grip strength and health-related physical fitness in insufficiently active older adults: the BELL pragmatic controlled trial

Outcome Baseline (95% CI) Difference (95% CI) at
13 weeks 19 weeks 29 weeks
Grip strength (kg)
 Right 29.1 (25.3, 32.8) 0.6 (-0.9, 2.1) 4.2 (2.5, 5.8)*** 7.8 (6.0, 9.5)***
 Left 27.9 (24.4, 31.3) 0.3 (-1.2, 1.8) 4.0 (2.4, 5.6)*** 6.6 (4.9, 8.2)***
6-min walk distance (m) 599.8 (577.4, 622.3) 30.2 (14.0, 46.9)***   71.6 (53.9, 89.3)***
Stair climb time (sec) 48.1 (44.2, 52.0) -3.6 (-4.7, -2.4)*** -5.4 (-6.6, -4.1)*** -6.2 (-8.0, -4.5)***
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 124.5 (118.8, 130.2) -5.9 (-12.2, 0.4)   6.9 (-1.9, 15.7)
Resting heart rate (bpm) 69.4 (64.5, 74.3) 10.1 (5.4, 14.8)***   -7.4 (-14.1, -0.7)*
Knee extension peak force (N)
 Right 321.6 (288.3, 355.0) -9.9 (-38.5, 18.8)   51.7 (9.4, 94.1)**
 Left 285.9 (254.3, 317.4) 12.4 (-11.4, 36.3)   62.2 (26.3, 98.1)***
Knee extension RFD (N.s-1)
 right 133.5 (118.0, 148.9) 46.2 (-104.1, 196.6)   -114.2 (-334.4, 105.9)
 left 584.3 (455.9, 712.7) 268.4 (104.8, 432.0)**   61.4 (-173.6, 296.4)
Knee extension peak torque (N.m)
 Right 133.5 (118.0, 148.9) -4.2 (-16.1, 7.6)   20.7 (3.1, 38.3)**
 Left 118.7 (104.1, 133.3) 4.8 (-4.8, 14.4)   25.0 (10.3, 39.7)***
Hip extension peak force (N)
 Right 160.1 (146.4, 173.8) 6.9 (-0.3, 14.1)   17.7 (6.9, 28.4)**
 Left 164.7 (150.0, 179.4) 7.7 (-0.8, 16.1)   28.7 (16.3, 41.0)***
Hip extension RFD (N.s-1)
 Right 240.1 (172.9, 307.3)    156.6 (32.7, 280.6)*
 Left 271.1 (167.2, 375.1)    58.0 (-146.5, 262.4)
Hip extension peak torque (N.m)
 Right 135.6 (122.5, 148.8) 5.8 (-0.4, 11.9)   14.2 (5.0, 23.4)**
 Left 139.4 (125.9, 153.0) 5.9 (-1.3, 13.0)   22.1 (11.5, 32.7)***
30s Sit to Stand (W.kg-1) 7.20 (6.86, 7.53) 0.36 (0.03, 0.69)*   0.48 (0.03, 0.94)*
Vertical jump (cm) 13.5 (11.8, 15.2) 0.0 (-0.6, 0.6) 0.4 (-0.4, 1.3) -0.2 (-1.3, 0.8)
30s Sit to Stand (reps) 14.2 (12.9, 15.4) 1.7 (0.4, 2.9)*   4.9 (3.1, 6.7)***
Fingertip to floor (cm) -2.7 (-6.7, 1.3) -1.6 (-3.8, 0.7)   2.5 (-0.8, 5.8)
Fat mass (kg) DXA 30.92 (27.88, 33.96) 0.02 (-0.42, 0.46)   -0.10 (-0.77, 0.58)
Lean mass (kg) DXA 47.08 (43.38, 50.78) 0.28 (-0.11, 0.66)   0.99 (0.40, 1.57)***
ASM (kg) DXA – upper + lower limbs 21.34 (19.52, 23.16) -0.08 (-0.35, 0.20)   0.58 (0.17, 0.99)**
SMI (kg/m2) DXA 7.27 (6.84, 7.70) -0.01 (-0.11, 0.08)   0.21 (0.07, 0.35)**
ASM (kg) BIA – Sergi eqn 43.9 (40.3, 47.5) 0.4 (-0.4, 1.2)   0.7 (-0.4, 1.9)
5x floor transfer time (s) 41.8 (38.1, 45.5) -5.9 (-8.4, -3.3)*** -12.4 (-15.4, -9.3)*** -11.8 (-15.3, -8.3)***
1RM (kg) – predicted 69.5 (60.0, 78.9) 5.6 (-1.3, 12.6)   21.8 (11.6, 32.0)***
Standing balance (cm2) – eyes closed 23.3 (17.4, 29.1) 2.1 (-3.5, 7.8)   4.4 (0.4, 8.5)*
Health change - SF36 52.4 (45.6, 59.2) -0.1 (-8.5, 8.3) 17.3 (8.2, 26.4)*** 17.0 (7.8, 26.3)***
Sense of coherence 154.0 (144.7, 163.3) -3.0 (-11.0, 5.0)   2.6 (-8.3, 13.4)
  1. *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001 significantly different to baseline