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Table 1 Characteristics of participants

From: The association between community-level socioeconomic status and cognitive function among Chinese middle-aged and older adults: a study based on the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS)

Characteristics Total (n = 26,065) Urban (n = 9155) Rural (n = 16,910) P value for urban-rural difference
N (%) or Mean (SD) N (%) or Mean (SD) N (%) or Mean (SD)
Outcome
 Cognitive function 14.86 (5.46) 16.05 (5.27) 14.22 (5.45) < 0.001
Community-level SES variables
 Percentage of the illiterate (%) 11.90 (12.69) 9.11 (9.97) 13.41 (13.72) < 0.001
 Per-capita net income, Yuan 4895.66 (5751.73) 6802.77 (7306.49) 3863.15 (4365.55) < 0.001
 Community-level SES 0.00 (1.00) 0.38 (1.03) −0.20 (0.92) < 0.001
Community-level SES, n (%) a     < 0.001
 Low 8685 (33.32) 1697 (18.54) 6988 (41.32)  
 Middle 8683 (33.31) 2741 (29.94) 5942 (35.14)  
 High 8697 (33.37) 4717 (51.52) 3980 (23.54)  
Individual-level SES variables
 Years of schooling, years 5.14 (4.56) 6.37 (4.74) 4.49 (4.32) < 0.001
 Per household income, Yuan 8910.97 (20,379.19) 13,830.77 (28,937.33) 6247.42 (12,909.19) < 0.001
 Individual-level SES −0.00 (1.00) 0.33 (1.24) −0.18 (0.78) < 0.001
Individual-level SES, n (%) a     < 0.001
 Low 8685 (33.32) 2027 (22.14) 6658 (39.37)  
 Middle 8691 (33.34) 2545 (27.80) 6146 (36.35)  
 High 8689 (33.34) 4583 (50.06) 4106 (24.28)  
Community-level sociodemographic variables
 Percentage of residents with non-agricultural work (%) 52.39 (24.64) 74.42 (22.58) 40.46 (15.96) < 0.001
 Health care facilities, n (%)     < 0.001
     No 24,529 (94.11) 7964 (86.99) 16,565 (97.96)  
     Yes 1536 (5.89) 1191 (13.01) 345 (2.04)  
 Handicapped access 1.91 (1.43) 2.52 (1.68) 1.58 (1.14) < 0.001
 Outdoor exercise facilities, n (%)     < 0.001
     No 17,972 (68.95) 4183 (45.69) 13,789 (81.54)  
     Yes 8093 (31.05) 4972 (54.31) 3121 (18.46)  
 Voluntary social organizations 0.97 (1.15) 1.68 (1.28) 0.59 (0.86) < 0.001
 Libraries 0.58 (0.61) 0.74 (0.63) 0.49 (0.58) < 0.001
 Rooms for card games and chess games, n (%)     < 0.001
     No 17,316 (66.43) 3961 (43.27) 13,355 (78.98)  
     Yes 8749 (33.57) 5194 (56.73) 3555 (21.02)  
  1. SES socioeconomic status
  2. aVariable was treated as a continuous variable but is presented categorically for descriptive purposes