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Table 2 Studies reporting the relationship between frailty and post-operative complications in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer

From: The prevalence and prognostic value of frailty screening measures in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer: observations from a systematic review

Study Design Patient (n =) Country Frailty screening tool Prevalence of frailty (%) Timing of assessment Age (Median/ Mean; years) % Male/Female TNM Stage Clavien-dindo classification of complication Comments
Bessems et al. (2021,) [33] Retrospective 132 Netherlands Geriatric 8 questionnaire 40 (G8 ≤ 14) Pre-operative 78 58/42 I-IV 1 or above Frailty associated with complication incidence on UV analysis (P = 0.038)
Chen et al. (2018,) [21] Retrospective 1928 USA Modified Frailty Index (MFI-5) 12 (MFI ≥ 2) Pre-operative 59 55/45 IV 3 or above Frailty associated with complication incidence on MV binary log regression (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.47–3.04, P < 0.001)
Gearhart et al. (2020,) [25] Retrospective 1676 USA Modified Frailty Index (MFI-5) 25 (MFI ≥ 2) Pre-operative 75 50/50 NR 2 or above Frailty not associated with complication incidence on MV binary log regression (P = 0.19)
Lo et al. (2020,) [23] Retrospective 81, 803 USA Modified Frailty Index (MFI-5) 20 (MFI ≥ 2) Pre-operative NR (59% ≥ 65) 50/50 I-IV 3 or above Frailty associated with complication incidence on MV binary log regression (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.07–2.25, P = 0.018)
Miller at sl (2020,) [26] Retrospective 9,252 USA Modified Frailty Index (MFI-5) 15 (MFI ≥ 2) Pre-operative NR (25% ≥ 65) 58/42 I-IV 2 or above Frailty associated with complication incidence on MV binary log regression (OR 6.7, 95% CI 4.5–10.0, P < 0.001)
Okabe et al. (2019,) [27] Prospective 269 Japan Clinical Frailty Scale 29 (CSHA CFS ≥ 4) Pre-operative 80 62/38 III-IV 3 or above Frailty associated with complication incidence on MV binary log regression OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.62–7.29. P = 0.001)
Reisinger et al. (2015,) [28] Retrospective 310 Netherlands Groningen Frailty Indicator 25 (GFI ≥ 5) Pre-operative NR (51% ≥ 70) 50/50 II-IV 3 or above Frailty not associated with complication incidence on UV binary log regression (P = 0.19)
Richards et al. (2021,) [29] Prospective 86 New Zealand Edmonton Frailty Scale 14 (EFS ≥ 8) Pre-operative 76 50/50 I-IV 3 or above Frailty not associated with complication incidence on MV binary log regression P = 0.62)
Souwer et al. (2018,) [30] Retrospective 139 Netherlands Geriatric 8 questionnaire 50 (G8 ≤ 14) Pre-operative 77.8 55/45 I-III 1 or above Frailty not associated with complication incidence on UV analysis (P = 0.7)
Suzuki et al. (2021,) [31] Retrospective 151 Japan Modified Frailty Index (MFI-11) 35 (MFI ≥ 3) Pre-operative 84 44/56 NR 2 or above Frailty associated with complication incidence on UV analysis (P = 0.02)
Tamura et al. (2021,) [24] Prospective 500 Japan Geriatric 8 questionnaire 56 (G8 ≤ 14) Pre-operative 76 58/42 I-IV 1 or above Frailty not associated with complication incidence on UV binary log regression (P = 0.355)
Tan et al. (2012,) [32] Prospective 83 Japan Fried Frailty Phenotype 28 (Fried ≥ 3/5 criteria) Pre-operative 81.2 NR NR 2 or above Frailty associated with complication incidence on MV binary log regression (OR 4.08, 95% CI, 1.43–11.6, P = 0.006)
  1. UV Univariate, MV Multivariate, OR Odds Ratio