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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of individuals with lower limb osteoarthritis and persistent severe pain (n = 638), weighted unless specified otherwise

From: Predictors of resilience in older adults with lower limb osteoarthritis and persistent severe pain

  LLOA with persistent severe paina LLOA without persistent severe paina P-valueb LLOA with missing data on pain P-valuec
Number of individuals (unweighted) 95 390   153  
Age in years (unweighted) 74.6 ± 4.8 73.9 ± 5.0 0.237 75.9 ± 5.4  < 0.001*
Sex, women (%, unweighted) 69.5 63.1 0.243 76.5 0.005*
Country of residence (%) 
 Germany 7.6 6.7 0.013* 6.5 < 0.001*
 Italy 8.8 24.1   38.3  
 the Netherlands 26.0 14.8   23.4  
 Spain 23.8 22.9   15.3  
 Sweden 19.9 20.6   11.7  
 United Kingdom 13.9 10.9   4.8  
Educational level (%)
 No education 17.8 16.3 0.433 19.1 0.062
 Low education 38.2 38.6   43.3  
 Intermediate education 24.4 31.3   30.9  
 High education 19.7 13.8   6.7  
Mastery 17.7 ± 6.0 18.2 ± 5.2 0.440 15.8 ± 5.0  < 0.001*
Smoking, current or former %) 48.6 46.7 0.692 38.1 0.055
Alcohol use, yes (%) 64.6 70.4 0.247 70.7 0.713
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 30.6 ± 5.1 28.9 ± 4.7 0.002* 28.8 ± 5.0 0.405
Physical activity (min/day) d 173.8 [97.2–220.5] 180.0 [101.7–255.9] 0.360 164.5 [90.0–278.6] 0.971
Partner status, % yes 59.9 68.2 0.141 56.9 0.029*
Lubben Social Network Scale (family) 8.0 ± 3.8 9.1 ± 3.2 0.012* 9.0 ± 3.3 0.893
Lubben Social Network Scale (friends) 7.2 ± 3.6 7.7 ± 3.5 0.239 6.7 ± 4.0 0.008*
Number of chronic diseases (%)
 0 23.8 33.9 0.070 16.3 < 0.001*
 1 32.0 33.4   38.0  
 2 or more 44.2 32.7   45.7  
Grip strength in kg 23.3 ± 9.5 24.7 ± 10.2 0.214 22.0 ± 9.9 0.011*
  1. Presented are the mean and standard deviation unless stated otherwise. Differences in mean were tested using Independent-Samples T Tests; differences in median were tested using Mann–Whitney U test; differences in frequencies were tested using Pearson Chi-square Test
  2. aNumbers can vary slightly between variables because of missing values
  3. bComparison: individuals with and without persistent severe pain
  4. cComparison: individuals with and without data
  5. dMedian [interquartile range]
  6. *P-value < 0.05