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Table 2 Associations of the three aging metrics incorporating cognitive and physical function with all-cause mortality

From: Aging metrics incorporating cognitive and physical function capture mortality risk: results from two prospective cohort studies

Aging metrics Model 1 Model 2
CHARLS OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
CI-PFa Normal cognition & non-frailty Ref Ref
Cognitive impairment & non-frailty 1.59 (1.29, 1.96) 1.35 (1.08, 1.69)
Normal cognition & frailty 1.88 (1.10, 3.20) 1.69 (0.99, 2.90)
Cognitive impairment & frailty 2.87 (1.74, 4.74) 2.42 (1.46, 4.02)
FI Non-frail Ref Ref
Pre-frail 1.34 (1.08, 1.66) 1.27 (1.02, 1.57)
Frail 1.94 (1.50, 2.50) 1.82 (1.41, 2.35)
MCR Absence Ref Ref
Presence 1.27 (1.00, 1.62) 1.16 (0.91, 1.47)
NHANES HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
CI-PF Normal cognition & non-frailty Ref Ref
Cognitive impairment & non-frailty 1.39 (1.25, 1.56) 1.39 (1.23, 1.57)
Normal cognition & frailty 3.16 (2.66, 3.76) 3.09 (2.58, 3.69)
Cognitive impairment & frailty 2.85 (2.26, 3.60) 2.78 (2.19, 3.54)
FI Non-frail Ref Ref
Pre-frail 1.39 (1.21, 1.60) 1.36 (1.18, 1.57)
Frail 2.68 (2.33, 3.10) 2.58 (2.23, 2.98)
MCR Absence Ref Ref
Presence 1.91 (1.58, 2.31) 1.83 (1.51, 2.22)
  1. CHARLS China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, CI-PF cognitive impairment and physical frailty, FI frailty index, MCR Motoric Cognitive Risk syndrome, NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, HR hazard ratio
  2. Notes: aAs previously reported (Chen et al., 2020), significant differences in all-cause mortality between the four CI-PF groups were observed
  3. Model 1: adjusted for age, and sex
  4. Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, education, and residence (in CHARLS) or ethnicity/race (in NHANES)