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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by vitamin D treatment groups

From: The effects of vitamin D supplementation on frailty in older adults at risk for falls

  All (N = 687) Primary Analysis Population
(N = 687)
Burn-in cohort (n = 405)b
Control (200 IU/d)
(n = 339)
Pooled Higher Doses (PHD)a (n = 348) 200 IU/d
(n = 205)
1000 IU/d
(n = 66)
2000 IU/d
(n = 67)
4000 IU/d
(n = 67)
Age (years), mean ± SD 77.1 ± 5.4 77.1 ± 5.4 77.2 ± 5.4 77.7 ± 5.6 76.4 ± 4.4 77.3 ± 4.6 79.1 ± 5.9
Sex, no. (%)
 Male 388 (56.5) 198 (58.4) 190 (54.6) 88 (42.9) 28 (42.4) 29 (43.3) 27 (40.3)
 Female 299 (43.5) 141 (41.6) 158 (45.4) 117 (57.1) 38 (57.6) 38 (56.7) 40 (59.7)
Race, no. (%)c
 White 542 (79.7) 276 (82.4) 266 (77.1) 171 (83.4) 48 (72.7) 50 (75.8) 56 (83.6)
 Black 124 (18.2) 55 (16.4) 69 (20.0) 32 (15.6) 13 (19.7) 15 (22.7) 10 (14.9)
 Other 23 (3.4) 7 (2.1) 16 (4.6) 4 (2.0) 5 (7.6) 2 (3.0) 1 (1.5)
BMI (kg/m2), mean ± SD 30.5 ± 6.0 30.4 ± 6.3 30.6 ± 5.6 30.2 ± 6.3 31.5 ± 5.7 30.7 ± 6.4 30.3 ± 6.2
Serum vitamin D (ng/mL)d
 10 to 19, no. (%) 200 (29.1) 100 (29.5) 100 (28.7) 69 (33.7) 15 (22.7) 25 (37.3) 22 (32.8)
 20 to 29, no. (%) 487 (70.9) 239 (70.5) 248 (71.3) 136 (66.3) 51 (77.3) 42 (62.7) 45 (67.2)
Taking a personal vitamin D supplement
 No. (%) 255 (37.1) 124 (36.6) 131 (37.6) 76 (37.1) 26 (39.4) 26 (38.8) 21 (31.3)
 Median (IQR), IU/d 700 (600) 800 (586) 700 (600) 800 (586) 750 (500) 800 (500) 571 (400)
Fell ≥ 1 time in prior year, no. (%) 449 (65.4) 221 (65.2) 228 (65.5) 135 (65.9) 42 (63.6) 43 (64.2) 45 (67.2)
Number of chronic conditionse, mean ± SD 2.0 ± 1.2 1.9 ± 1.2 2.1 ± 1.2 2.0 ± 1.2 2.2 ± 1.3 2.1 ± 1.3 1.9 ± 1.2
Frailty statusf, no. (%)
 Robust 208 (30.3) 105 (31.0) 103 (29.6) 60 (29.3) 19 (28.8) 25 (37.3) 23 (34.3)
 Pre-frail 402 (58.5) 206 (60.8) 196 (56.3) 123 (60.0) 40 (60.6) 36 (53.7) 33 (49.3)
 Frail 77 (11.2) 28 (8.2) 49 (14.1) 22 (10.7) 7 (10.6) 6 (9.0) 11 (16.4)
  1. aPooled Higher Doses denotes the combined 1000, 2000, and 4000 IU/d groups
  2. bThe four vitamin D groups were compared among participants in the burn-in cohort. The burn-in cohort from the dose-finding phase is an unbiased population for comparison of each higher dose versus control because these participants were randomized prior to the first adaptation of the randomization probabilities
  3. cRace was self-reported by the participant from a list of 5 categories (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, White); more than one race could be reported by a participant
  4. dThe range of serum vitamin D level eligible for STURDY (10–29 ng/mL) includes levels termed deficient (< 20 ng/mL) or insufficient (20–29 ng/mL) by the Endocrine Society and overlaps with levels termed deficient (< 12 ng/mL), inadequate (12-19 ng/mL), or adequate (≥ 20) by the Institute of Medicine
  5. eChronic conditions included cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic lung disease, diabetes, kidney disease, liver disease, arthritis, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis
  6. fFrailty phenotype was defined as having three or more of the following condition: weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, low physical activity, and weakness
  7. IU/d International units per day. SD Standard deviation. BMI Body mass index