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Table 8 Comparison between demographics of the NIG and that of the IG before and after matching

From: Improvement in prescriptions while maintaining overall health outcomes: a prospective observational study conducted in Japanese facilities for older people

  NIG IG Standardized difference
Before matching
 Number of people 368 153  
  Sex
  women, %
75.00 74.51 0.011
  Age
  years, mean ± SD
86.4 ± 7.9 86.6 ± 8.0 0.025
  EQ-5D-5L scores
  mean ± SD
0.62 ± 0.26 0.59 ± 0.24 0.13
  BI scores
  mean ± SD
60.2 ± 32.2 58.0 ± 33.1 0.067
  MMSE scores
  mean ± SD
17.0 ± 8.9 16.0 ± 8.6 0.12
  DBD scores
  mean ± SD
16.5 ± 14.3 17.9 ± 14.5 0.10
  VI scores
  mean ± SD
7.4 ± 2.6 7.3 ± 2.6 0.055
  Medication costs
  JPY/day, mean ± SD
499.0 ± 598.0 601.1 ± 656.2 0.16
  Number of medications
  mean ± SD
7.6 ± 3.4 8.5 ± 3.8 0.27
After matching
 Number of people 275 141  
  Sex
  women, %
74.2 75.2 0.023
  Age
  years, mean ± SD
86.2 ± 8.3 86.7 ± 8.1 0.063
  EQ-5D-5L scores
  mean ± SD
0.59 ± 0.26 0.59 ± 0.24 0.026
  BI scores
  mean ± SD
57.7 ± 33.4 57.9 ± 33.2 0.070
  MMSE scores
  mean ± SD
16.2 ± 9.2 16.2 ± 8.5 0.0023
  DBD scores
  mean ± SD
18.0 ± 14.8 17.9 ± 14.3 0.071
  VI scores
  mean ± SD
7.3 ± 2.7 7.3 ± 2.6 0.027
  Medication costs
  JPY/day, mean ± SD
523.1 ± 460.3 560.0 ± 629.6 0.067
  Number of medications
  mean ± SD
8.1 ± 3.4 8.3 ± 3.8 0.059
  1. SD standard deviation, EQ-5D-5L EuroQoL-5D-5L-proxy, BI Barthel Index, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, DBD Dementia Behaviour Disturbance Scale, VI Vitality Index
  2. NIG (not improvement group), those who were prescribed both in March 2019 and March 2020 were classified into this group
  3. IG (improvement group), participants who were prescribed and administered medications cautiously in March 2019 and not prescribed in March 2020 were classified into this group