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Table 4 Comparison between the demographics of the NIFG and that of the IFG before and after matching

From: Improvement in prescriptions while maintaining overall health outcomes: a prospective observational study conducted in Japanese facilities for older people

  NIFG IFG Standardized difference
Before matching
 Number of people 273 604  
  Sex
  women, %
72.9 76.7 0.084
  Age
  years, mean ± SD
87.1 ± 7.2 85.7 ± 8.2 0.18
  EQ-5D-5L scores
  mean ± SD
0.63 ± 0.26 0.63 ± 0.25 0.012
  BI scores
  mean ± SD
59.3 ± 33.7 63.2 ± 32.2 0.12
  MMSE scores
  mean ± SD
16.0 ± 9.5 17.4 ± 8.4 0.15
  DBD scores
  mean ± SD
17.6 ± 14.1 15.6 ± 13.6 0.14
  VI scores
  mean ± SD
7.4 ± 2.7 7.50 ± 2.6 0.038
  Medication costs
  JPY/day, mean ± SD
429.8 ± 504.8 542.1 ± 706.1 0.18
  Number of medications
  mean ± SD
7.0 ± 3.5 7.10 ± 3.7 0.041
After matching
 Number of people 234 459  
  Sex
  women, %
72.2 75.6 0.075
  Age
  years, mean ± SD
86.7 ± 7.3 87.0 ± 7.0 0.037
  EQ-5D-5L scores
  mean ± SD
0.64 ± 0.27 0.64 ± 0.25 0.0010
  BI scores
  mean ± SD
61.2 ± 34.0 61.3 ± 32.4 0.0040
  MMSE scores
  mean ± SD
16.7 ± 9.5 16.5 ± 8.3 0.012
  DBD scores
  mean ± SD
16.2 ± 13.3 16.3 ± 14.0 0.0083
  VI scores
  mean ± SD
7.4 ± 2.7 7.5 ± 2.6 0.020
  Medication costs
  JPY/day, mean ± SD
451.1 ± 534.2 457.0 ± 515.2 0.011
  Number of medications
  mean ± SD
7.0 ± 3.5 6.8 ± 3.7 0.045
  1. NIFG (not implemented facilities group), participants who were not in facilities where proposals for improving inappropriate prescriptions were implemented by the end of March 2020 were classified into this group
  2. IFG (implemented facilities group), participants who were in facilities where proposals for improving inappropriate prescriptions were implemented by the end of March 2020 were classified into this group