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Table 1 Demographics of the participants whose data were analysed in March 2019

From: Improvement in prescriptions while maintaining overall health outcomes: a prospective observational study conducted in Japanese facilities for older people

Number of people 891
Sex (Women, %) 75.5%
Age (mean ± SD, years) 86.15 ± 7.89
Nursing care levela (nursing care level > 2, %) 37.5%
EQ-5D-5L scores (mean ± SD) 0.63 ± 0.25
BI scores (mean ± SD) 61.9 ± 32.8
MMSE scores (mean ± SD) 17.0 ± 8.8
DBD scores (mean ± SD) 16.2 ± 13.8
VI scores (mean ± SD) 7.5 ± 2.6
Daily medication costs (mean ± SD, JPY/day) 507.1 ± 629.6
Number of medications (mean ± SD) 7.1 ± 3.7
Concomitant drugs (Usage, %)
 Antidiabetic 11.7%
 Antihypertensive 16.0%
 Antihyperlipidaemic 38.8%
 Antiulcer 47.6%
 Vasodilator 44.7%
 Antacid 44.1%
  1. SD standard deviation; EQ-5D-5L EuroQoL-5D-5L-proxy, BI Barthel Index, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, DBD Dementia Behaviour Disturbance Scale, VI Vitality Index
  2. a The degree of care needed in Japan is divided into seven categories: two “support needed” levels plus five “nursing care” levels. The type of care services provided under a long-term care insurance scheme in Japan is determined based on these categories