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Table 1 Characteristics of patients and the results of univariate analysis

From: External validation of a new predictive model for falls among inpatients using the official Japanese ADL scale, Bedriddenness ranks: a double-centered prospective cohort study

Variable, Category All patients
n = 3,551
With Fall Without fall p value
n = 125 n = 3,426
Age, years 78 (66–87) 86 (80–90) 78 (65–86)  < 0.001
Gender, Male 1,701 (47.9) 59 (47.2) 1,642 (47.9) 0.873
Emergency admission, Yes 1,374 (38.7) 77 (61.6) 1,297 (37.9)  < 0.001
Transported by ambulance, Yes 473 (13.3) 15 (12.0) 458 (13.4) 0.658
Referral letter, Presence 1,064 (30.0) 43 (34.4) 1,021 (29.8) 0.324
Department, Internal Medicine 1,999 (56.3) 89 (71.2) 1910 (55.8)  < 0.001
Department, Neurosurgery 68 (1.9) 7 (5.6) 61 (1.8)
Hypnotic medications, Using 357 (10.1) 28 (22.4) 329 (9.6)  < 0.001
Hypnotic medications, Missing 7 (0.2) 0 (0) 7 (0.2)
Permanent residual damage from previous stroke, Presence 227 (6.4) 11 (8.8) 216 (6.3) 0.273
History of falls, Presence 352 (10.0) 43 (34.4) 309 (9.1)  < 0.001
Visual impairment, Presence 1,135 (34.2) 61 (56.0) 1,074 (33.5)  < 0.001
Eating, Independent 2,713 (76.4) 66 (52.8) 2,647 (77.3)  < 0.001
Eating, Missing category 45 (1.2) 0 (0) 45 (1.3)
Bedriddenness rank, Normal 1,790 (51.9) 11 (8.8) 1,779 (51.9)  < 0.001
Bedriddenness rank, J 317 (8.9) 10 (8.0) 307 (9.0)
Bedriddenness rank, A 410 (11.5) 25 (20.0) 385 (11.2)
Bedriddenness rank, B 517 (14.6) 57 (45.6) 460 (13.4)
Bedriddenness rank, C 517 (14.6) 22 (17.6) 495 (14.4)
Cognitive function score, Normal 2,187 (61.6) 20 (16.1) 2,167 (63.3)  < 0.001
Cognitive function score, I 423 (11.9) 24 (19.4) 399 (11.7)
Cognitive function score, II 341 (9.6) 35 (28.2) 306 (8.9)
Cognitive function score, III 453 (12.8) 35 (28.2) 418 (12.2)
Cognitive function score, IV 119 (3.4) 8 (6.5) 111 (3.2)
Cognitive function score, M 16 (0.5) 2 (1.6) 14 (0.4)
Cognitive function score, missing 9 (0.3) 0 (0) 9 (0.3)
Barthel index 100 (55–100) 50 (25–65) 100 (55–100)  < 0.001
Katz index 6 (1–6) 1 (0–3) 6 (1–6)  < 0.001
Surgical operation, Undergone 991 (27.9) 13 (10.4) 978 (28.5)  < 0.001
Rehabilitation, Undergone 1,310 (36.9) 85 (68.0) 1225 (35.8)  < 0.001
Length of hospital stay (days) 10 (5–18) 32 (18–56) 9 (5–17)  < 0.001
  1. Continuous and categorical variables are shown as median (interquartile range) and frequency (percent). Bedriddenness ranks: J, independence/autonomy; A, house-bound; B, chair-bound; C, bed-bound. Cognitive function scores: I, almost independent in daily living with only slight cognitive impairment; II, independent with slight difficulty in daily living or communication under careful overseeing; III, dependent in daily living or communication; IV, dependent in daily living or communication, and requires constant care; M, severe psychological symptoms, troubled behaviors or severe physical disorders requiring specialized medical service
  2. p values were calculated by Mann–Whitney U-test for continuous variables and chi-squared test for categorical variables